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Measuring Agreement

Book Description

Presents statistical methodologies for analyzing common types of data from method comparison experiments and illustrates their applications through detailed case studies

Measuring Agreement: Models, Methods, and Applications features statistical evaluation of agreement between two or more methods of measurement of a variable with a primary focus on continuous data. The authors view the analysis of method comparison data as a two-step procedure where an adequate model for the data is found, and then inferential techniques are applied for appropriate functions of parameters of the model. The presentation is accessible to a wide audience and provides the necessary technical details and references. In addition, the authors present chapter-length explorations of data from paired measurements designs, repeated measurements designs, and multiple methods; data with covariates; and heteroscedastic, longitudinal, and categorical data. The book also:

• Strikes a balance between theory and applications

• Presents parametric as well as nonparametric methodologies

• Provides a concise introduction to Cohen’s kappa coefficient and other measures of agreement for binary and categorical data

• Discusses sample size determination for trials on measuring agreement

• Contains real-world case studies and exercises throughout

• Provides a supplemental website containing the related datasets and R code

Measuring Agreement: Models, Methods, and Applications is a resource for statisticians and biostatisticians engaged in data analysis, consultancy, and methodological research. It is a reference for clinical chemists, ecologists, and biomedical and other scientists who deal with development and validation of measurement methods. This book can also serve as a graduate-level text for students in statistics and biostatistics.

Table of Contents

  1. PREFACE
  2. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
    1. 1.1 PREVIEW
    2. 1.2 NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS
    3. 1.3 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A MEASUREMENT METHOD
    4. 1.4 METHOD COMPARISON STUDIES
    5. 1.5 MEANING OF AGREEMENT
    6. 1.6 A MEASUREMENT ERROR MODEL
    7. 1.7 SIMILARITY VERSUS AGREEMENT
    8. 1.8 A TOY EXAMPLE
    9. 1.9 CONTROVERSIES AND OUR VIEW
    10. 1.10 CONCEPTS RELATED TO AGREEMENT
    11. 1.11 ROLE OF CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND HYPOTHESES TESTING
    12. 1.12 COMMON MODELS FOR PAIRED MEASUREMENTS DATA
    13. 1.13 THE BLAND-ALTMAN PLOT
    14. 1.14 COMMON REGRESSION APPROACHES
    15. 1.15 INAPPROPRIATE USE OF COMMON TESTS IN METHOD COMPARISON STUDIES
    16. 1.16 KEY STEPS IN THE ANALYSIS OF METHOD COMPARISON DATA
    17. 1.17 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    18. 1.18 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    19. EXERCISES
  3. CHAPTER 2 COMMON APPROACHES FOR MEASURING AGREEMENT
    1. 2.1 PREVIEW
    2. 2.2 INTRODUCTION
    3. 2.3 MEAN SQUARED DEVIATION
    4. 2.4 CONCORDANCE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
    5. 2.5 A DIGRESSION: TOLERANCE AND PREDICTION INTERVALS
    6. 2.6 LIN’S PROBABILITY CRITERION AND BLAND-ALTMAN CRITERION
    7. 2.7 LIMITS OF AGREEMENT
    8. 2.8 TOTAL DEVIATION INDEX AND COVERAGE PROBABILITY
    9. 2.9 INFERENCE ON AGREEMENT MEASURES
    10. 2.10 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    11. 2.11 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    12. EXERCISES
  4. CHAPTER 3 A GENERAL APPROACH FOR MODELING AND INFERENCE
    1. 3.1 PREVIEW
    2. 3.2 MIXED-EFFECTS MODELS
    3. 3.3 A LARGE-SAMPLE APPROACH TO INFERENCE
    4. 3.4 MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF METHOD COMPARISON DATA
    5. 3.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    6. 3.6 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    7. EXERCISES
  5. CHAPTER 4 PAIRED MEASUREMENTS DATA
    1. 4.1 PREVIEW
    2. 4.2 MODELING OF DATA
    3. 4.3 EVALUATION OF SIMILARITY AND AGREEMENT
    4. 4.4 CASE STUDIES
    5. 4.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    6. 4.6 TECHNICAL DETAILS
    7. 4.7 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    8. EXERCISES
  6. CHAPTER 5 REPEATED MEASUREMENTS DATA
    1. 5.1 PREVIEW
    2. 5.2 INTRODUCTION
    3. 5.3 DISPLAYING DATA
    4. 5.4 MODELING OF DATA
    5. 5.6 EVALUATION OF REPEATABILITY
    6. 5.7 CASE STUDIES
    7. 5.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    8. 5.9 TECHNICAL DETAILS
    9. 5.10 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    10. EXERCISES
  7. CHAPTER 6 HETEROSCEDASTIC DATA
    1. 6.1 PREVIEW
    2. 6.2 INTRODUCTION
    3. 6.3 VARIANCE FUNCTION MODELS
    4. 6.4 REPEATED MEASUREMENTS DATA
    5. 6.5 PAIRED MEASUREMENTS DATA
    6. 6.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    7. 6.7 TECHNICAL DETAILS
    8. 6.8 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    9. EXERCISES
  8. CHAPTER 7 DATA FROM MULTIPLE METHODS
    1. 7.1 PREVIEW
    2. 7.2 INTRODUCTION
    3. 7.3 DISPLAYING DATA
    4. 7.4 EXAMPLE DATASETS
    5. 7.5 MODELING UNREPLICATED DATA
    6. 7.6 MODELING REPEATED MEASUREMENTS DATA
    7. 7.7 MODEL FITTING AND EVALUATION
    8. 7.8 EVALUATION OF SIMILARITY AND AGREEMENT
    9. 7.9 EVALUATION OF REPEATABILITY
    10. 7.10 CASE STUDIES
    11. 7.11 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    12. 7.12 TECHNICAL DETAILS
    13. 7.13 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    14. EXERCISES
  9. CHAPTER 8 DATA WITH COVARIATES
    1. 8.1 PREVIEW
    2. 8.2 INTRODUCTION
    3. 8.3 MODELING OF DATA
    4. 8.4 EVALUATION OF SIMILARITY, AGREEMENT, AND REPEATABILITY
    5. 8.5 CASE STUDY
    6. 8.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    7. 8.7 TECHNICAL DETAILS
    8. 8.8 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    9. EXERCISES
  10. CHAPTER 9 LONGITUDINAL DATA
    1. 9.1 PREVIEW
    2. 9.2 INTRODUCTION
    3. 9.3 MODELING OF DATA
    4. 9.4 EVALUATION OF SIMILARITY AND AGREEMENT
    5. 9.5 CASE STUDY
    6. 9.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    7. 9.7 TECHNICAL DETAILS
    8. 9.8 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    9. EXERCISES
  11. CHAPTER 10 A NONPARAMETRIC APPROACH
    1. 10.1 PREVIEW
    2. 10.2 INTRODUCTION
    3. 10.3 THE STATISTICAL FUNCTIONAL APPROACH
    4. 10.4 EVALUATION OF SIMILARITY AND AGREEMENT
    5. 10.5 CASE STUDIES
    6. 10.6 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    7. 10.7 TECHNICAL DETAILS
    8. 10.8 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    9. EXERCISES
  12. CHAPTER 11 SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION
    1. 11.1 PREVIEW
    2. 11.2 INTRODUCTION
    3. 11.3 THE SAMPLE SIZE METHODOLOGY
    4. 11.4 CASE STUDY
    5. 11.5 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    6. 11.6 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    7. EXERCISES
  13. CHAPTER 12 CATEGORICAL DATA
    1. 12.1 PREVIEW
    2. 12.2 INTRODUCTION
    3. 12.3 EXPERIMENTAL SETUPS AND EXAMPLES
    4. 12.4 COHEN’S KAPPA COEFFICIENT FOR DICHOTOMOUS DATA
    5. 12.5 KAPPA TYPE MEASURES FOR MORE THAN TWO CATEGORIES
    6. 12.6 CASE STUDIES
    7. 12.7 MODELS FOR EXPLORING AGREEMENT
    8. 12.8 DISCUSSION
    9. 12.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY
    10. 12.10 BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTE
    11. EXERCISES
  14. REFERENCES
  15. DATASET LIST
  16. INDEX
  17. EULA