Chapter 1

Fracturing of a wellbore and 2D fracture models


The early fracture models are reviewed. And, the effects of dry zone and filter-cake on the behavior of a hydraulically induced fracture are discussed in this chapter.


Constant height fracture

Breakdown pressure

KGD model

PKN model

Circular fracture

Energy method

Dry zone




The hydraulic fracturing process has been employed to enhance the production of oil and gas from underground reservoirs for many decades. In the process, the frac-fluid is pumped at a high pressure into a selected section of wellbore. This fluid pressure creates one or more fractures extending into the rock medium that contains oil or gas. Since the fracturing ...

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