Chapter 2

Evolution from four mental states to the highest state of consciousness: A neurophysiological basis of meditation as defined in yoga texts

Singh Deepeshwara; H.R. Nagendraa; Bal Budhi Ranaa; Naveen Kalkuni Visweswaraiahb,*    a Department of Yoga and Life Sciences, Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, Swami Vivekananda Yoga University (S-VYASA), Bengaluru, Indiab Yogaksema Chain of Clinics for Stress, Pain, Lifestyle, Nutrition, Bengaluru, India* Corresponding author: email address:


This chapter provides a theoretical introduction to states of consciousness and reviews neuroscientific investigations of meditation. The different states of consciousness consist of four mental states, i.e., cancalata (random thinking), ...

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