Historical overview

In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the development of micro-scale robotic systems. Researchers have explored numerous ways and techniques to provide systems capable of performing micro-scale tasks. Many micro-scale systems have been biologically inspired or based. For effective micro-scale systems, it is critical to understand cellular mechanics and their interaction with low Reynolds number environments. Cellular swimming has led researchers to mimic biological motors such as flagella for bacteria-inspired microrobots. Others have used biological phenomena and external stimuli for micro-scale robotic systems such as magnetotactic bacteria. Using bacteria as well as other microorganisms as a power ...

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