The use of microneedle (MN) arrays for facilitated delivery of therapeutic substances to target cells residing in the skin layers is one of the most obvious applications of this innovative technology. For example, breaching the skin's stratum corneum barrier via MN arrays allows administration of vaccines into the skin where they will activate various populations of immune cells. In this chapter, the application of MN‐mediated intradermal delivery of vaccines will be discussed in detail.
4.2 Vaccine Delivery
Vaccination is one of the most important, cost‐effective and successful public health interventions available to healthcare systems worldwide in the prevention of infectious disease‐related morbidity and mortality. Vaccination effectively prevents disease, can improve the morbidity of a population base and helps to reduce mortality rates. On a fundamental level, a vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. Vaccines activate the immune response of the body by imitating infection by a specific disease, thus instigating the production of T‐lymphocytes and antibodies but without the associated illness. The first vaccination was famously carried out by Edward Jenner in 1796 and resulted in the development of the smallpox vaccine . It is now ...