7Minimally‐invasive Patient Monitoring and Diagnosis Using Microneedles

Aaron J. Courtenay Marco T.A. Abbate Maelíosa T.C. McCrudden and Ryan F. Donnelly

School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, BT9 7BL, UK

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 What is Patient Monitoring?

Therapeutic monitoring in patients refers to a system of analyses aimed at the detection and quantification of drugs or endogenous markers primarily from serum or plasma matrices. Therapeutic monitoring is performed as a matter of routine over the course of continued treatment, in hospital settings, for example, or at the initial stages of a patient presenting in the healthcare facility. Clinically, therapeutic monitoring in patients is used extensively as a rapid diagnostic tool for many disease states and allows for the optimisation of drug therapies.

7.1.2 Why is Patient Monitoring Useful?

Throughout clinical settings, for example in hospitals and other community clinics such as GP surgeries and pharmacies, therapeutic monitoring plays a significant role in assisting prescribers and clinicians to provide a high standard of care to patients with a number of specific disease states [1]. Therapeutic drug monitoring can be used to diagnose acute and chronic conditions. Pathophysiological events taking place within the body can be monitored, often in real time. One such example is in instances of acute myocardial infarction. In this example, troponin levels, as determined by constant monitoring, can reflect the nature ...

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