Syntax. COVARIANCE.P(array1,array2)

Definition. This function returns the covariance of a population, which is the average of the products of deviations for each data-point pair.

Use the covariance to determine the relationship between two data sets. For example, you can determine whether a higher income is based on education.


  • array1 (required). The first cell range of integers

  • array2 (required). The second cell range of integers


The arguments must be numbers, names, arrays, or references that contain numbers. If an array or a reference argument contains text, logical values, or empty cells, those values are ignored. However, cells with the value 0 are included.

If array1 and array2 have a different number of data points, ...

Get Microsoft® Excel® 2010 Formulas & Functions Inside Out now with O’Reilly online learning.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from 200+ publishers.