A computer programmer needs to understand how computers work with information. The hardware of modern computers works with little on/off switches that work in base-two mathematics. Some people refer to this type of mathematics as binary mathematics and use values of 1 and 0 instead of on and off switches. All information in a computer, from text to video games, is converted internally into binary numbers before the computer can do something useful with it. In the earliest days of computer programming, you had to work in binary notation to do anything.

Fortunately, modern languages such as C# spare you this tedium. You can tell the computer that you want to work with text (which programmers call strings, as you recall from ...

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