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Microwave and Radio-Frequency Technologies in Agriculture

Book Description

Humanity’s ability to produce enough food is mostly due to adoption of new methods and technologies by the agricultural industries as they became available. New information, communication and high speed processing and precision agriculture technologies have the potential to transform the agricultural industry. These technologies incorporate radio-frequency and microwave radiation into their systems. This book presents an overview of how these technologies are being used in agricultural systems. The main purpose of the book is to provide a glimpse of what is possible and encourage practitioners in the engineering and agricultural industries to explore how radio-frequency and microwave systems might further enhance the agricultural industry. The authors have extensive experience in agricultural and microwave engineering, instrumentation and communication systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: General Introduction
    1. 1 Introduction
      1. References
    2. 2 Some Brief Examples of Technical Innovation in Agricultural Industries
      1. 2.1 Machines
      2. 2.2 Early Innovations in Agriculture
      3. 2.3 Transportation Technologies
      4. 2.4 The Tractor
      5. 2.5 The Green Revolution
      6. 2.6 High Resolution Production Systems
      7. 2.7 Spatial Data
      8. 2.8 Temporal Data
      9. 2.9 Conclusions
      10. References
    3. 3 A Brief Overview of Radio Frequency and Microwave Applications in Agriculture
      1. 3.1 Heating Applications
        1. 3.1.1 Crop Drying
        2. 3.1.2 Quarantine
        3. 3.1.3 Effect of Microwave Heating on Seeds and Plants
        4. 3.1.4 Microwave Treatment of Animal Fodder
        5. 3.1.5 Microwave Assisted Extraction
        6. 3.1.6 Microwave Assisted Pyrolysis and Bio-fuel Extraction
      2. 3.2 Sensor Applications
        1. 3.2.1 Assessment of Wood
        2. 3.2.2 Radar Systems
      3. 3.3 Communication Systems
      4. 3.4 Conclusion
      5. References
    4. 4 Microwaves and their Interactions with Materials
      1. 4.1 Electric and Magnetic Field Vectors
      2. 4.2 Maxwell’s Equations for Electro-magnetism
      3. 4.3 Magnetic Vector Potential
      4. 4.4 Continuity
      5. 4.5 Conservation of Electromagnetic Energy
      6. 4.6 Boundary Conditions
      7. 4.7 Wave Impedance
      8. 4.8 Reflection and Transmission at an Interface
      9. 4.9 Electromagnetic Behaviour of Materials
      10. 4.10 Conclusions
      11. References
  7. Section 2: Non-destructive Characterisation Using Electromagnetic Waves
    1. 5 Section Introduction
      1. References
    2. 6 Techniques for Measuring Dielectric Properties
      1. 6.1 Dielectric Properties
      2. 6.2 Polarization
        1. 6.2.1 DIPOLAR POLARIZATION
        2. 6.2.2 IONIC POLARIZATION
        3. 6.2.3 ELECTRONIC AND ATOMIC POLARIZATION
        4. 6.2.4 INTERFACIAL OR SPACE CHARGE POLARIZATION
        5. 6.2.5 DIELECTRIC LOSS
        6. 6.2.6 RELAXATION TIME
      3. 6.3 Cole-Cole diagram
        1. 6.3.1 Bode’ plots and Nyquist Plots
      4. 6.4 Microwave Measurement Methods
        1. 6.4.1 Transmission/Reflection Line Method
        2. 6.4.2 Resonant Technique
        3. 6.4.3 Dielectric Resonator
        4. 6.4.4 Dielectric Post Resonator
        5. 6.4.5 Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator
        6. 6.4.6 Open-ended co-axial probe method
        7. 6.4.7 Dielectric Probe (Coaxial probe)
        8. 6.4.8 Free Space Method
        9. 6.4.9 Antenna
        10. 6.4.10 Near-field Microwave Probe
        11. 6.4.11 Reentrant Cavity
        12. 6.4.12 Fabry-Perot Resonator
      5. 6.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    3. 7 Dielectric Properties of Organic Materials
      1. 7.1 Frequency Dependency of Dielectric Properties
      2. 7.2 Temperature Dependence of the Dielectric Properties
      3. 7.3 Density and Field Orientation Dependence of Dielectric Properties
      4. 7.4 Dielectric Modelling of Organic Materials
        1. 7.4.1 Modelling the Dielectric Properties of Free Water
        2. 7.4.2 Modelling the Dielectric Properties of Bound Water
        3. 7.4.3 Modelling the Dielectric Properties of Moist Wood
        4. 7.4.4 Modelling the Dielectric Properties of Grains
        5. 7.4.5 Modelling the Dielectric Properties of Soils
        6. 7.4.6 Dielectric Properties of Insects
      5. 7.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    4. 8 Insect and Decay Detection
      1. 8.1 Radar Entomology
        1. 8.1.1 Antennas
        2. 8.1.2 Rectangular Apertures
        3. 8.1.3 Open Ended Wave-Guide
        4. 8.1.4 Horn Antennas
        5. 8.1.5 Circular Apertures
        6. 8.1.6 Antenna Gain
        7. 8.1.7 Radar Range
        8. 8.1.8 Radar Cross Section
        9. 8.1.9 Close Range Radar
        10. 8.1.10 Motion Detection - Doppler Shift
      2. 8.2 Free-Space Microwave Systems
        1. 8.2.1 Decay Detection
      3. 8.3 Conclusions
      4. References
    5. 9 Moisture Monitoring
      1. 9.1 Free-Space Moisture Detection
        1. 9.1.1 Practical Applications
      2. 9.2 Microwave Emissions as a Measure of Moisture
      3. 9.3 Radar Moisture Measurement
      4. References
    6. 10 Radar Imaging
      1. 10.1 Radar Imaging
      2. 10.2 Image Distortion
      3. 10.3 Target Interaction and Image Appearance
      4. 10.4 Airborne versus Space-borne Radar
      5. 10.5 Ground Penetrating Radar
      6. References
    7. 11 Electromagnetic Survey Techniques
      1. 11.1 Electromagnetic Induction
        1. 11.1.1 EM31
        2. 11.1.2 EM34
        3. 11.1.3 EM39
        4. 11.1.4 EM38
      2. 11.2 Global Positioning System
        1. 11.2.1 Principles of GPS Operation
        2. 11.2.2 Step 1: Triangulating from Satellites
        3. 11.2.3 Step 2: Measuring distance from a satellite
        4. 11.2.4 Step 3: Getting perfect timing
        5. 11.2.5 Step 4: Knowing where a satellite is in space
        6. 11.2.6 Step 5: Correcting errors
        7. 11.2.7 Differential GPS
      3. 11.3 Geographic Information Systems
        1. 11.3.1 Integration
        2. 11.3.2 Limitations
      4. References
  8. Section 3: Dialectric Heating
    1. 12 Section Introduction
      1. References
    2. 13 Dielectric Heating
      1. 13.1 Conductive Heat Transfer
      2. 13.2 Convective Heating
      3. 13.3 Radiative Heat Transfer
      4. 13.4 Microwave Heating
      5. 13.5 Microwave Frequency and its Influence over Microwave Heating
      6. 13.6 The Influence of Material Geometry on Microwave Heating
      7. 13.7 Comparative Efficiency of Convective and Microwave Heating
      8. 13.8 Thermal Runaway
      9. 13.9 Examples of Using Thermal Runaway to Great Advantage
      10. 13.10 Conclusion
      11. Nomenclature
      12. References
    3. 14 Simultaneous Heat and Moisture Movement
      1. 14.1 Temperature Sensing in Electromagnetic Fields
        1. References
    4. 15 Microwave Drying
      1. 15.1 Microwave Drying of Crop Fodder
      2. 15.2 Modelling Microwave Drying
      3. 15.3 Effect of Microwave Drying on Milling Properties
      4. References
    5. 16 Radio Frequency and Microwave Processing of Food
      1. 16.1 Dielectric Properties of Foods
      2. 16.2 Comparative Efficiency of Convective and Microwave Heating
      3. References
    6. 17 Microwave Applicators
      1. 17.1 Wave-Guides
      2. 17.2 Waveguide Modes
      3. 17.3 Other Wave-guide Modes
      4. 17.4 Transverse Magnetic Modes
      5. 17.5 Wave-guide Cut-off Conditions
      6. 17.6 Wavelength in a Wave-guide
      7. 17.7 Wave Impedance in a Wave-guide
      8. 17.8 Power Flow along a Wave-guide Propagating in TE10 Mode
      9. 17.9 Cylindrical Wave Guides
      10. 17.10 Microwave Ovens
      11. 17.11 Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) Simulating Microwave Field 17.12 Distributions in Applicators
      12. 17.12 Microwave Safety
      13. 17.13 Antenna Applicators
        1. 17.13.1 Analysis of a Horn Antenna
        2. 17.13.2 A Uniformly Illuminated Aperture Approximation
        3. 17.13.3 A Numerical Integration Approximation
        4. 17.13.4 Other Options
      14. Nomenclature
      15. Appendix A – Derivation of Near Field from a Uniformly Illuminated Rectangular Aperture
      16. References
    7. 18 Quarantine and Biosecurity
      1. 18.1 Insect Control
      2. 18.2 The Background to Microwave and Radiofrequency Quarantine
        1. 18.2.1 Termites as a Case Study
      3. 18.3 Microbial Control
      4. 18.4 Conclusions
      5. References
    8. 19 Weed Management
      1. 19.1 Radio Frequency and Microwave Treatments
      2. 19.2 Microwave Treatment of Plants
      3. 19.3 Reinterpretation of Earlier Microwave Weed Experiments
      4. 19.4 Impact of Microwave Treatment on Soil
      5. 19.5 Crop Growth Response
      6. 19.6 Analysis of Potential Crop Yield Response to Microwave Weed Management
      7. 19.7 The Potential for Including Microwave Weed Control for Herbicide Resistance Management
      8. 19.8 Conclusion
      9. 19.9 Nomenclature
      10. Appendix A – Derivation of the Impact of Weed Infestation and Herbicide Control on Crop Yield Response
      11. References
    9. 20 Treatment of Animal Fodder
      1. 20.1 Effect of Microwave Treatment on Digestibility
      2. 20.2 Microstructure Changes
      3. 20.3 Potential Mitigation of Methane Production
      4. 20.4 Microwave Treatment of Grains
      5. 20.5 Effect of Microwave Heating on Crude Protein
      6. 20.6 Conclusion
      7. References
    10. 21 Wood Modification
      1. 21.1 Applications of Microwave Modification in Wood Drying
      2. 21.2 Improving Wood Impregnation
      3. 21.3 Stress Relief
      4. 21.4 Industrial Scale Pilot Plant
      5. 21.5 Pre-treatment for Wood Pulping
      6. References
    11. 22 Microwave Assisted Extraction
      1. 22.1 Solvent based Extraction of Essential Oils
      2. 22.2 Solvent Free Extraction of Essential Oils
      3. 22.3 Microwave Pre-treatment Followed by Conventional Extraction Techniques
      4. 22.4 Application to Sugar Juice Extraction
      5. 22.5 Microwave Accelerated Steam Distillation
      6. References
    12. 23 Thermal Processing of Biomass
      1. 23.1 BioSolids
      2. 23.2 Biosolids’ Composition and Characteristics
      3. 23.3 Nutrient Value of Biosolids
      4. 23.4 Current Applications of Biosolids
      5. 23.5 Thermal Processing of Materials
        1. 23.5.1 Combustion
        2. 23.5.2 Gasification
        3. 23.5.3 Anaerobic Decomposition (Torrefaction and Pyrolysis)
      6. 23.6 Microwave-assisted Pyrolysis
      7. 23.7 Biochar
      8. References
  9. Section 4: Automatic Data Acquisition and Wireless Sensor Networks
    1. 24 Section Introduction
      1. References
    2. 25 Data Acquisition
      1. 25.1 Sensors / Transducers
      2. 25.2 Power Supply
      3. 25.3 Accuracy and Its Components
      4. 25.4 Transducer Output
      5. 25.5 Signal Conditioning
        1. 25.5.1 Noise
        2. 25.5.2 Amplification
        3. 25.5.3 Offset Adjustment
      6. 25.6 Digital Data Acquisition
        1. 25.6.1 Sample and Hold Circuits
        2. 25.6.2 Aliasing
        3. 25.6.3 Multiplexing
        4. 25.6.4 Analogue-to-Digital Conversion
      7. 25.7 Software
      8. 25.8 Lightning Protection
        1. 25.8.1 Some Notes on Earthing Systems
      9. References
    3. 26 Radio Frequency and Microwave Communication Systems
      1. 26.1 Principles of RF and Microwave Communication
      2. 26.2 Principles of Wireless Communication
      3. 26.3 Modulation
      4. 26.4 Simplex, Half-duplex and Duplex Communication Systems
      5. 26.5 Digital Communication
      6. 26.6 Transmission Channels
        1. 26.6.1 Transmission Lines
        2. 26.6.2 Loss-Less Transmission Line
        3. 26.6.3 Lossy Transmission Line
        4. 26.6.4 Optic Fibre
      7. 26.7 Wireless Radio Channels
      8. References
    4. 27 Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks
      1. 27.1 Network Configurations
      2. 27.2 Open Source Platforms
        1. 27.2.1 Raspberry Pi
        2. 27.2.2 Arduino
      3. 27.3 Mobile Telephone Networks
      4. 27.4 Power Supply
        1. 27.4.1 Available Solar Energy
      5. References
    5. 28 RFID Systems
      1. 28.1 Active, Semi-passive and Passive RFID Tags
      2. 28.2 Animal Tracking Systems
      3. 28.3 Environmental Sensor Applications
      4. 28.4 Near Field Communication
      5. References
    6. 29 Conclusions
      1. 29.1 Heating Applications
      2. 29.2 Sensor Applications
      3. 29.3 Communication Systems
      4. 29.4 Conclusion
      5. References