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Microwave and Radio-Frequency Technologies in Agriculture by Peter Farrell, Mohan V. Jacob, Graham Brodie

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1 Introduction

A changing magnetic field will induce a changing electric field and vice-versa. These changing fields form electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic (EM) waves differ from mechanical waves in that they do not require a medium to propagate through. This means that electromagnetic waves can travel not only through air and solid materials, but also through the vacuum of space.

During the 1860’s and 1870’s, James Clerk Maxwell developed a scientific theory to explain electromagnetic waves. He noticed that electrical fields and magnetic fields can couple together to form electromagnetic waves. He summarized this relationship between electricity and magnetism into what are now referred to as “Maxwell’s Equations.”

Electromagnetic waves ...

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