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Microwave Imaging by Matteo Pastorino

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CHAPTER TEN

Applications of Microwave Imaging

10.1 CIVIL AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

Microwave diagnostic techniques are widely used in civil and industrial applications, especially because of their ability of penetrate inside dielectric materials. The simplest way to understand this phenomenon is to consider the propagation of a plane wave through a homogeneous medium. To this end, let us assume that a plane wave [equation (2.4.24)] is propagating along the z axis inside a material characterized by ε = ε′ − jε″ [equation (2.3.14)], and μ (real-valued). Thus

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where

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Accordingly, equation (2.4.24) can be rewritten as

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For ideal dielectrics, α = 0; consequently, from equation (10.1.4) it results that |Ep(z)| = |E0| for any z; that is, the electromagnetic field is not attenuated. For low-loss scatterers (ε″ « ε′), we have

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whereas for good conducting materials, for which the conduction effect ...

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