Network Media
Symptoms of network media faults can range from the inability of a single client to connect to the network to the failure of an entire system. The topology of your network determines the extent of a problem caused by a single failure and how you troubleshoot media-related problems. On a bus-based network, for example, a single cable break will shut down the entire segment, but with a UTP-based star-bus topology, a cable fault may affect only one client, unless it’s the cable between two switches or a switch and a server. Also, with a star topology, you may have a single point of failure if the switch breaks down.
Media faults can generally be categorized as follows:
 
  Cable breaks
  Cable shorts
  Incorrect wiring ...

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