Chapter 1

Introduction to Multi-Antenna Communications

1.1 Brief history of array processing

Wireless system designers are facing a number of challenges. These include the limited availability of the radio frequency spectrum and a complex space-time varying wireless environment. In addition, there is an increasing demand for higher data rates, better quality of service and higher network capacity. In recent years, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems have emerged as a most promising technology in these measures. MIMO communication systems can be defined intuitively [GSS+03, PNG03] by considering that multiple antennas are used at the transmitting end as well as at the receiving end. The core idea behind MIMO is that signals sampled in ...

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