The World Wide Web, or the Web for short, is a collection of billions of documents written in a way that enables them to cite each other using hyperlinks, which is why they are a form of hypertext. These documents, or Web pages, are typically a few thousand characters long, written in a diversity of languages, and cover essentially all topics of human endeavor. Web pages are served through the Internet using the hypertext transport protocol (Http) to client computers, where they can be viewed using browsers. Http is built on top of the transport control protocol (TCP), which provides reliable data streams to be transmitted from one computer to another across the Internet.

Throughout this book, we shall study how automatic ...

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