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Modeling Human–System Interaction

Book Description

This book presents theories and models to examine how humans interact with complex automated systems, including both empirical and theoretical methods.

  • Provides examples of models appropriate to the four stages of human-system interaction
  • Examines in detail the philosophical underpinnings and assumptions of modeling
  • Discusses how a model fits into "doing science" and the considerations in garnering evidence and arriving at beliefs for the modeled phenomena

Modeling Human-System Interaction is a reference for professionals in industry, academia and government who are researching, designing and implementing human-technology systems in transportation, communication, manufacturing, energy, and health care sectors.

Table of Contents

  1. COVER
  2. TITLE PAGE
  3. PREFACE
  4. INTRODUCTION
  5. 1 KNOWLEDGE
    1. GAINING NEW KNOWLEDGE
    2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD: WHAT IS IT?
    3. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
    4. REASONING LOGICALLY
    5. PUBLIC (OBJECTIVE) AND PRIVATE (SUBJECTIVE) KNOWLEDGE
    6. THE ROLE OF DOUBT IN DOING SCIENCE
    7. EVIDENCE: ITS USE AND AVOIDANCE
    8. METAPHYSICS AND ITS RELATION TO SCIENCE
    9. OBJECTIVITY, ADVOCACY, AND BIAS
    10. ANALOGY AND METAPHOR
  6. 2 WHAT IS A MODEL?
    1. DEFINING “MODEL”
    2. MODEL ATTRIBUTES: A NEW TAXONOMY
    3. EXAMPLES OF MODELS IN TERMS OF THE ATTRIBUTES
    4. WHY MAKE THE EFFORT TO MODEL?
    5. ATTRIBUTE CONSIDERATIONS IN MAKING MODELS USEFUL
    6. SOCIAL CHOICE
    7. WHAT MODELS ARE NOT
  7. 3 IMPORTANT DISTINCTIONS IN MODELING
    1. OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE MODELS
    2. SIMPLE AND COMPLEX MODELS
    3. DESCRIPTIVE AND PRESCRIPTIVE (NORMATIVE) MODELS
    4. STATIC AND DYNAMIC MODELS
    5. DETERMINISTIC AND PROBABILISTIC MODELS
    6. HIERARCHY OF ABSTRACTION
    7. SOME PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES
  8. 4 FORMS OF REPRESENTATION
    1. VERBAL MODELS
    2. GRAPHS
    3. MAPS
    4. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS
    5. LOGIC DIAGRAMS
    6. CRISP VERSUS FUZZY LOGIC (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF FUZZY LOGIC”)
    7. SYMBOLIC STATEMENTS AND STATISTICAL INFERENCE (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF STATISTICAL INFERENCE FROM EVIDENCE”)
  9. 5 ACQUIRING INFORMATION
    1. INFORMATION COMMUNICATION (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION”)
    2. INFORMATION VALUE (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF INFORMATION VALUE”)
    3. LOGARITHMIC‐LIKE PSYCHOPHYSICAL SCALES
    4. PERCEPTION PROCESS (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF THE BRUNSWIK/KIRLIK PERCEPTION MODEL”)
    5. ATTENTION
    6. VISUAL SAMPLING (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF HOW OFTEN TO SAMPLE”)
    7. SIGNAL DETECTION (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF SIGNAL DETECTION”)
    8. SITUATION AWARENESS
    9. MENTAL WORKLOAD (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “RESEARCH QUESTIONS CONCERNING MENTAL WORKLOAD”)
    10. EXPERIENCING WHAT IS VIRTUAL: NEW DEMANDS FOR HUMAN–SYSTEM MODELING (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “BEHAVIOR RESEARCH ISSUES IN VIRTUAL REALITY”)
  10. 6 ANALYZING THE INFORMATION
    1. TASK ANALYSIS
    2. JUDGMENT CALIBRATION
    3. VALUATION/UTILITY (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF HUMAN JUDGMENT OF UTILITY”)
    4. RISK AND RESILIENCE
    5. TRUST
  11. 7 DECIDING ON ACTION
    1. WHAT IS ACHIEVABLE
    2. DECISION UNDER CONDITION OF CERTAINTY (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF DECISIONS UNDER CERTAINTY”)
    3. DECISION UNDER CONDITION OF UNCERTAINTY (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY”)
    4. COMPETITIVE DECISIONS: GAME MODELS (SEE ALSO APPENDIX “MATHEMATICS OF GAME MODELS”)
    5. ORDER OF SUBTASK EXECUTION
  12. 8 IMPLEMENTING AND EVALUATING THE ACTION
    1. TIME TO MAKE A SELECTION
    2. TIME TO MAKE AN ACCURATE MOVEMENT
    3. CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK CONTROL (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK CONTROL”)
    4. LOOKING AHEAD (PREVIEW CONTROL) (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “MATHEMATICS OF PREVIEW CONTROL”)
    5. DELAYED FEEDBACK
    6. CONTROL BY CONTINUOUSLY UPDATING AN INTERNAL MODEL (SEE ALSO APPENDIX, SECTION “STEPPING THROUGH THE KALMAN FILTER SYSTEM”)
    7. EXPECTATION OF TEAM RESPONSE TIME
    8. HUMAN ERROR
  13. 9 HUMAN–AUTOMATION INTERACTION
    1. HUMAN–AUTOMATION ALLOCATION
    2. SUPERVISORY CONTROL
    3. TRADING AND SHARING
    4. ADAPTIVE/ADAPTABLE CONTROL
    5. MODEL‐BASED FAILURE DETECTION
  14. 10 MENTAL MODELS
    1. WHAT IS A MENTAL MODEL?
    2. BACKGROUND OF RESEARCH ON MENTAL MODELS
    3. ACT‐R
    4. LATTICE CHARACTERIZATION OF A MENTAL MODEL
    5. NEURONAL PACKET NETWORK AS A MODEL OF UNDERSTANDING
    6. MODELING OF AIRCRAFT PILOT DECISION‐MAKING UNDER TIME STRESS
    7. MUTUAL COMPATIBILITY OF MENTAL, DISPLAY, CONTROL, AND COMPUTER MODELS
  15. 11 CAN COGNITIVE ENGINEERING MODELING CONTRIBUTE TO MODELING LARGE‐SCALE SOCIO‐TECHNICAL SYSTEMS?
    1. BASIC QUESTIONS
    2. WHAT LARGE‐SCALE SOCIAL SYSTEMS ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?
    3. WHAT MODELS?
    4. POTENTIAL OF FEEDBACK CONTROL MODELING OF LARGE‐SCALE SOCIETAL SYSTEMS
    5. THE STAMP MODEL FOR ASSESSING ERRORS IN LARGE‐SCALE SYSTEMS
    6. PAST WORLD MODELING EFFORTS
    7. TOWARD BROADER PARTICIPATION
  16. APPENDIX
    1. MATHEMATICS OF FUZZY LOGIC (CHAPTER 4, SECTION “CRISP VERSUS FUZZY LOGIC”)
    2. MATHEMATICS OF STATISTICAL INFERENCE FROM EVIDENCE (CHAPTER 4, SECTION “SYMBOLIC STATEMENTS AND STATISTICAL INFERENCE”)
    3. MATHEMATICS OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION (CHAPTER 5, SECTION “INFORMATION COMMUNICATION”)
    4. MATHEMATICS OF INFORMATION VALUE (CHAPTER 5, SECTION “INFORMATION VALUE”)
    5. MATHEMATICS OF THE BRUNSWIK/KIRLIK PERCEPTION MODEL (CHAPTER 5, SECTION “PERCEPTION PROCESS”)
    6. MATHEMATICS OF HOW OFTEN TO SAMPLE (CHAPTER 5, SECTION “VISUAL SAMPLING”)
    7. MATHEMATICS OF SIGNAL DETECTION (CHAPTER 5, SECTION “SIGNAL DETECTION”)
    8. RESEARCH QUESTIONS CONCERNING MENTAL WORKLOAD (CHAPTER 5, SECTION “MENTAL WORKLOAD”)
    9. BEHAVIOR RESEARCH ISSUES IN VIRTUAL REALITY (CHAPTER 5, SECTION “EXPERIENCING WHAT IS VIRTUAL; NEW DEMANDS FOR MODELING”)
    10. MATHEMATICS OF HUMAN JUDGMENT OF UTILITY (CHAPTER 6, SECTION “VALUATION/UTILITY”)
    11. MATHEMATICS OF DECISIONS UNDER CERTAINTY (CHAPTER 7, SECTION “DECISION UNDER CONDITION OF CERTAINTY”)
    12. MATHEMATICS OF DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY (CHAPTER 7, SECTION “DECISION UNDER CONDITION OF UNCERTAINTY”)
    13. MATHEMATICS OF GAME MODELS (CHAPTER 7, SECTION “COMPETITIVE DECISIONS: GAME MODELS”)
    14. MATHEMATICS OF CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK CONTROL (CHAPTER 8, SECTION “CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK CONTROL”)
    15. MATHEMATICS OF PREVIEW CONTROL (CHAPTER 8, SECTION “LOOKING AHEAD (PREVIEW CONTROL)”)
    16. STEPPING THROUGH THE KALMAN FILTER SYSTEM (CHAPTER 8, SECTION “CONTROL BY CONTINUOUSLY UPDATING AN INTERNAL MODEL”)
  17. REFERENCES
  18. INDEX
  19. END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT