Writing exception-safe classes

In general, when you write classes, you should ensure that you protect the users of your classes from exceptions. Exceptions are not an error propagation mechanism. If a method on your class fails but is recoverable (the object state is left consistent) then you should use the return value (most likely an error code) to indicate this. Exceptions are for exceptional situations, those that have invalidated data and where, at the point where the exception is raised, the situation is unrecoverable.

When an exception occurs in your code, you have three options. Firstly, you can allow the exception to propagate up the call stack and put the responsibility of handling the exception on the calling code. This means that ...

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