Probability and information theory are essential tools for the development of modern cryptographic techniques.

Probability is a basic tool for the analysis of security. We often need to estimate *how probable* it is that an insecure event may occur under certain conditions. For example, considering Protocol “Coin Flipping Over Telephone” in Chapter 1, we need to estimate the probability for Alice to succeed in finding a collision for a given one-way function *f* (which should desirably be bounded by a very small quantity), and that for Bob to succeed in finding the parity of *x* when given *f*(*x*) (which should desirably be very close to ).

Information theory is closely related to probability. ...

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