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Modern Cryptography: Theory and Practice by Wenbo Mao

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Chapter 18. Zero-Knowledge Protocols

18.1 Introduction

A basic problem in cryptography is a two-party interactive game in which one party (called the prover) proves to the other party (called the verifier) that a predicate of a statement holds true without letting the latter learn how to conduct the proof as the former does. Here, the verifier on its own cannot verify the predicate due to the lack of some information which is available to the prover. The game has a general name of interactive proof (IP) protocol (system). We can consider a proof conducted by an IP protocol as “proof in the dark.” The phrase “in the dark” has two meanings: first, a verifier, after having been convinced the validity of what is proved, cannot have learned ...

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