This part is a collection of mathematical material which provides the basic notations, methods, basis of algebraic operations, building blocks of algorithmic procedures and references for modeling, specifying, analyzing, transforming and solving various problems to appear in the rest of this book.

This part has four chapters: probability and information theory (Chapter 3), computational complexity (Chapter 4), algebraic foundations (Chapter 5) and number theory (Chapter 6). This part serves as a self-contained mathematical reference guide. In the rest of the book whenever we meet non-trivial mathematical problems we will be able to refer to precise places in these four chapters to obtain ...

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