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Modern Recording Techniques, 9th Edition

Book Description

Modern Recording Techniques is the bestselling, authoritative guide to sound and music recording. Whether you’re just starting out or are looking for a step-up in the industry, Modern Recording Techniques provides an in-depth read on the art and technologies of music production. It’s a must-have reference for all audio bookshelves. Using its familiar and accessible writing style, this ninth edition has been fully updated, presenting the latest production technologies and includes an in-depth coverage of the DAW, networked audio, MIDI, signal processing and much more.

A robust companion website features video tutorials, web-links, an online glossary, flashcards, and a link to the author’s blog. Instructor resources include a test bank and an instructor’s manual.

The ninth edition includes:

  • Updated tips, tricks and insights for getting the best out of your studio
  • An introduction to the Apple iOS in music production
  • Introductions to new technologies and important retro studio techniques
  • The latest advancements in DAW systems, signal processing, mixing and mastering

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Chapter 1 Introduction
    1. The Professional Studio Environment
      1. The Professional Recording Studio
      2. The Control Room
      3. The Retro Revolution
      4. The Changing Faces of the Music Studio Business
    2. The Project Studio
      1. Making the Project Studio Pay for Itself
    3. The Portable Studio
      1. The iRevolution
    4. Live/On-location Recording: A Different Animal
    5. Audio for Video and Film
    6. Audio for Games
    7. The DJ
    8. The Times, They’ve Already Changed: Multimedia and the Web
    9. Power to the People!
      1. Whatever Works for You
    10. The People Who Make It All Happen
      1. The Artist
      2. Studio Musicians and Arrangers
      3. The Producer
      4. The Engineer
      5. Assistant Engineer
      6. Maintenance Engineer
      7. Mastering Engineer
      8. Studio Management
      9. Music Law
      10. Women and Minorities in the Industry
      11. Behind the Scenes
    11. Career Development
      1. Self-Motivation
      2. Networking: “Showing Up Is Huge”
    12. The Recording Process
      1. 1. Preparation
        1. The Power of Preparation
      2. 2. Recording
      3. 3. Overdubbing
        1. Options in Overdubbing
      4. 4. Mixdown
      5. 5. Mastering
      6. 6. Product Manufacturing and/or Downloadable Distribution
      7. 7. Marketing and Sales
  8. Chapter 2 Sound and Hearing
    1. The Transducer
    2. The Basics of Sound
      1. Waveform Characteristics
        1. Amplitude
        2. Frequency
          1. Frequency Response
        3. Velocity
        4. Wavelength
          1. Reflection of Sound
          2. Diffraction of Sound
        5. Phase
          1. Phase Shift
        6. Harmonic Content
        7. Envelope
    3. Loudness Levels: The Decibel
      1. Logarithmic Basics
      2. The Decibel
        1. Sound-Pressure Level
        2. Voltage
        3. Power
        4. The “Simple” Heart of the Matter
    4. The Ear
      1. Threshold of Hearing
      2. Threshold of Feeling
      3. Threshold of Pain
      4. Taking Care of Your Hearing
      5. Psychoacoustics
        1. Auditory Perception
        2. Beats
        3. Combination Tones
      6. Masking
        1. Perception of Direction
        2. Perception of Space
          1. Direct Sound
          2. Early Reflections
          3. Reverberation
  9. Chapter 3 Studio Acoustics and Design
    1. Studio Types
      1. The Professional Recording Studio
      2. The Audio-for-Visual Production Environment
      3. The Audio-for-Gaming Production Environment
      4. The Project Studio
    2. Primary Factors Governing Studio and Control Room Acoustics
      1. Acoustic Isolation
        1. Walls
        2. Floors
        3. Risers
        4. Ceilings
        5. Windows and Doors
        6. Iso-Rooms and Iso-Booths
        7. Acoustic Partitions
        8. Noise Isolation Within the Control Room
      2. Symmetry in Control Room Design
      3. Frequency Balance
        1. Reflections
        2. Absorption
          1. High-Frequency Absorption
          2. Low-Frequency Absorption
    3. Room Reflections and Acoustic Reverberation
      1. Acoustic Echo Chambers
  10. Chapter 4 Microphones: Design and Application
    1. Microphone Design
      1. The Dynamic Microphone
      2. The Ribbon Microphone
        1. Further Developments in Ribbon Technology
      3. The Condenser Microphone
        1. Powering a Condenser Mic
          1. External Power Supply
          2. Phantom Power
      4. The Electret-Condenser Microphone
    2. Microphone Characteristics
      1. Directional Response
      2. Frequency Response
      3. Transient Response
      4. Output Characteristics
        1. Sensitivity Rating
        2. Equivalent Noise Rating
        3. Overload Characteristics
        4. Microphone Impedance
      5. Balanced/Unbalanced Lines
    3. Microphone Preamps
    4. Microphone Techniques
      1. Other Microphone Pickup Issues
        1. Low-Frequency Rumble
        2. Proximity Effect
        3. Popping
        4. Off-Axis Pickup
      2. Pickup Characteristics as a Function of Working Distance
        1. Close Microphone Placement
          1. Leakage
        2. Recording Direct
        3. Distant Microphone Placement
          1. Room Microphone Placement
          2. Room Pickup in the Studio
          3. The Boundary Effect
          4. “Reamping it” in the Mix
        4. Accent Microphone Placement
      3. Stereo and Immersive Mic Techniques
        1. Spaced Pair
        2. X/Y
        3. M/S
        4. Decca Tree
        5. Surround Miking Techniques
          1. Ambient/Room Surround Mics
          2. Surround Decca Tree
    5. Microphone Placement Techniques
      1. Brass Instruments
        1. Trumpet
        2. Trombone
        3. Tuba
        4. French Horn
      2. Guitar
        1. Acoustic Guitar
          1. Miking Near the Sound Hole
          2. Room and Surround Guitar Miking
        2. The Electric Guitar
          1. Miking the Guitar Amp
          2. Recording Direct
        3. The Electric Bass Guitar
      3. Keyboard Instruments
        1. Grand Piano
          1. Separation
        2. Upright Piano
        3. Electronic Keyboard Instruments
      4. Percussion
        1. Drum Set
          1. Miking The Drum Set
          2. Kick Drum
          3. Snare Drum
          4. Overheads
          5. Rack-Toms
          6. Floor-Tom
          7. Hi-Hat
        2. Tuned Percussion Instruments
          1. Congas and Hand Drums
          2. Xylophone, Vibraphone and Marimba
      5. Stringed Instruments
        1. Violin and Viola
        2. Cello
        3. Double Bass
      6. Voice
        1. Mic Tools for The Voice
      7. Woodwind Instruments
        1. Clarinet
        2. Flute
        3. Saxophone
        4. Harmonica
    6. Microphone Selection
      1. Shure SM57
      2. Telefunken M81
      3. AKG D112
      4. Royer Labs R-21
      5. Beyerdynamic M-160
      6. AEA A440
      7. Shure PG181
      8. AKG C214
      9. Neumann TLM102
      10. ADK Z-251
      11. Townsend Labs Sphere L22TM
      12. Telefunken U47, C12 and ELA M251E
  11. Chapter 5 The Analog Tape Recorder
    1. To Commit or Not to Commit it to Tape?
    2. Magnetic Recording and its Media
      1. The Professional Analog ATR
        1. The Tape Transport
        2. The Magnetic Tape Head
        3. Equalization
        4. Bias Current
        5. Monitoring Modes
      2. To Punch or Not to Punch
      3. Tape, Tape Speed and Head Configurations
        1. Print-Through
        2. Analog Tape Noise
        3. Cleanliness
        4. Degaussing
      4. Editing Magnetic Tape
      5. Backup and Archive Strategies
        1. Backing Up Your Analog Project
        2. Archive Strategies
      6. C.L.A.S.P
      7. Tape Emulation Plug-Ins
  12. Chapter 6 Digital Audio Technology
    1. The Language of Digital
      1. Digital Basics
        1. Sampling
        2. Quantization
      2. The Devil’s in the Details
        1. The Nyquist Theorem
        2. Oversampling
        3. Signal-to-Error Ratio
        4. Dither
        5. Fixed- vs Floating-Point Processing
    2. The Digital Recording/Reproduction Process
      1. The Recording Process
      2. The Playback Process
    3. Sound File Basics
      1. Sound File Sample Rates
      2. Sound File Bit Depths
      3. Professional Sound File Formats
      4. Regarding Digital Audio Levels
      5. Digital Audio Transmission
        1. AES/EBU
        2. S/PDIF
        3. SCMS
        4. MADI
        5. ADAT Lightpipe
        6. TDIF
    4. Signal Distribution
      1. What Is Jitter?
      2. Wordclock
  13. Chapter 7 The Digital Audio Workstation
    1. Integration Now—Integration Forever!
    2. DAW Hardware
      1. The Desktop Computer
      2. The Laptop Computer
    3. System Interconnectivity
      1. USB
      2. FireWire
      3. Thunderbolt
      4. Audio Over Ethernet
    4. The Audio Interface
      1. Audio Driver Protocols
      2. Latency
      3. Need Additional I/O?
      4. DAW Controllers
        1. Hardware Controllers
        2. Instrument Controllers
        3. Touch Controllers
        4. Large-Scale Controllers
    5. Sound File Formats
      1. Sound File Sample and Bit Rates
      2. Sound File Interchange and Compatibility Between DAWs
    6. DAW Software
      1. Sound Recording and Editing
      2. Fixing Sound with a Sonic Scalpel
      3. Comping
      4. MIDI Sequencing and Scoring
      5. Support for Video and Picture Sync
      6. Real-Time, On-Screen Mixing
      7. DSP Effects
      8. DSP Plug-Ins
        1. Accelerator Processing Systems
        2. Fun with Effects
          1. Equalization
          2. Dynamics
          3. Delay
          4. Pitch and Time Change
      9. ReWire
      10. Mixdown and Effects Automation
      11. Exporting a Final Mixdown to File
    7. Power to the Processor … Uhhh, People!
      1. 1. Get a Computer That’s Powerful Enough
      2. 2. Make Sure You Have Enough Fast Memory
      3. 3. Keep Your Production Media Separate
      4. 4. Update Your Drivers—With Caution!
      5. 5. Going (At Least) Dual Monitor
      6. 6. Keeping Your Computer Quiet
      7. 7. Backup, Archive and Networking Strategies
        1. Computer Networking
      8. 8. Session Documentation
        1. Documenting Within the DAW
        2. Make Documentation Directories
      9. 9. Accessories and Accessorize
    8. In Closing
  14. Chapter 8 Groove Tools and Techniques
    1. The Basics
      1. Pitch Shift Algorithms
        1. Warping
      2. Beat Slicing
      3. Audio to MIDI
    2. Groove Hardware
    3. Groove Software
      1. Looping Your DAW
      2. Loop-based Audio Software
        1. ReWire
        2. Groove and Loop-based Plug-Ins
        3. Drum and Drum Loop Plug-Ins
    4. Pulling Loops into a DAW Session
    5. Groove Controllers
      1. DJ Software
    6. Obtaining Loop Files from the Great Digital Wellspring
  15. Chapter 9 MIDI and Electronic Music Technology
    1. The Power Of MIDI
    2. MIDI Production Environments
    3. What Is MIDI?
    4. What MIDI Isn’t
    5. System Interconnections
      1. The MIDI Cable
        1. MIDI Phantom Power
        2. Wireless MIDI
      2. MIDI Jacks
        1. MIDI Echo
      3. Typical Configurations
        1. The Daisy Chain
        2. The Multiport Network
    6. Exploring the Spec
      1. The MIDI Message
        1. MIDI Channels
        2. MIDI Modes
        3. Channel Voice Messages
      2. Explanation of Controller ID Parameters
      3. System Messages
    7. MIDI and the Computer
      1. Connecting to the Peripheral World
        1. The MIDI Interface
    8. Electronic Instruments
      1. Inside the Toys
        1. Instrument and Systems Plug-Ins
      2. Keyboards
        1. The Synth
      3. Samplers
        1. Sample Libraries and DIY Sampling
      4. The MIDI Keyboard Controller
      5. Percussion Instruments and Controllers
        1. The Drum Machine
        2. MIDI Drum Controllers
        3. Drum Replacement
      6. Other MIDI Instrument and Controller Types
    9. Sequencing
      1. Integrated Hardware Sequencers
      2. Software Sequencers
    10. Basic Introduction to Sequencing
      1. Recording
        1. Setting a Session Tempo
        2. Changing Tempo
        3. Click Track
        4. Multitrack MIDI Recording
        5. Punching In and Out
        6. Step Time Entry
        7. Drum Pattern Entry
      2. MIDI to Audio
      3. Audio to MIDI
      4. Saving Your MIDI Files
      5. Documentation
      6. Editing
        1. Practical Editing Techniques
          1. Transposition
          2. Quantization
          3. Humanizing
          4. Slipping in Time
          5. Editing Controller Values
      7. Playback
      8. Mixing a Sequence
    11. Music Printing Programs
  16. Chapter 10 The iOS in Music Production
    1. Audio Inside the iOS
      1. Core Audio on the iOS
      2. AudioBus
      3. Audio Units for the iOS
    2. Connecting the iOS to the Outside World
      1. Audio Connectivity
      2. MIDI Connectivity
    3. Recording Using iOS
      1. Handheld Recording Using iOS
      2. Mixing With iOS
      3. iDAWs
      4. Taking Control of Your DAW Using the iOS
    4. The iOS on Stage
      1. iOS and the DJ
    5. iOS as a Musical Instrument
    6. The Ability to Accessorize
  17. Chapter 11 Multimedia and the Web
    1. The Multimedia Environment
      1. The Computer
      2. Television and the Home Theater
    2. Delivery Media
      1. Networking
      2. The Web
        1. The Cloud
    3. Physical Media
      1. The CD
      2. The DVD
      3. Blu-ray
      4. The Flash Card and Memory USB Stick
    4. Media Delivery Formats
      1. Uncompressed Sound File Formats
        1. PCM Audio File Formats
        2. DSD Audio
      2. Compressed Codec Sound File Formats
        1. Perceptual Coding
          1. MP3
          2. MP4
          3. WMA
          4. AAC
          5. FLAC
        2. Tagged Metadata
    5. MIDI
      1. Standard MIDI Files
      2. General MIDI
    6. Graphics
    7. Video
    8. Multimedia in the “Need for Speed” Era
    9. On a Final Note
  18. Chapter 12 Synchronization
    1. Timecode
      1. Timecode Word
        1. Sync Information Data
        2. Timecode Frame Standards
      2. Timecode Within Digital Media Production
        1. Broadcast Wave File Format
      3. MIDI Timecode
        1. MIDI Timecode Messages
        2. SMPTE/MTC Conversion
    2. Timecode Production in the Analog Audio and Video Worlds
      1. Timecode Refresh and Jam Sync
      2. Synchronization Using SMPTE Timecode
      3. SMPTE Offset Times
      4. Distribution of SMPTE Signals
        1. Timecode Levels
      5. Real-World Applications Using Timecode and MIDI Timecode
        1. Master/Slave Relationship
          1. Video’s Need for a Stable Timing Reference
          2. Digital Audio’s Need for a Stable Timing Reference
        2. Video Workstation or Recorder
        3. Digital Audio Workstations
        4. Routing Timecode to and from Your Computer
        5. Analog Audio Recorders
        6. A Simple Caveat
      6. Keeping Out of Trouble
  19. Chapter 13 Amplifiers
    1. Amplification
      1. The Operational Amplifier
        1. Preamplifiers
        2. Equalizers
      2. Summing Amplifiers
      3. Distribution Amplifiers
      4. Power Amplifiers
      5. Voltage and Digitally Controlled Amplifiers
  20. Chapter 14 Power- and Ground-Related Issues
    1. Grounding Considerations
    2. Power Conditioning
      1. Multiple-Phase Power
        1. Balanced Power
    3. Hum, Radio Frequency (RF) and Electro-Magnetic Induction (EMI)
  21. Chapter 15 Signal Processing
    1. The Wonderful World of Analog, Digital or Whatever
      1. The Whatever
      2. Analog
        1. Analog Recall
      3. Digital
    2. Plug-Ins
      1. Plug-In Control and Automation
    3. Signal Paths in Effects Processing
      1. Insert Routing
        1. External Control Over an Insert Effect’s Signal Path
      2. Send Routing
      3. Viva La Difference
        1. Side Chain Processing
    4. Effects Processing
      1. Hardware and Plug-In Effects in Action
        1. Equalization
          1. Peaking Filters
          2. Shelving Filters
          3. High-Pass and Low-Pass Filters
          4. Equalizer Types
          5. Applying Equalization
          6. EQ in Action!
          7. Sound-Shaping Effects Devices and Plug-Ins
        2. Dynamic Range
        3. Dynamic Range Processors
        4. Compression
          1. Multiband Compression
        5. Limiting
        6. Expansion
        7. The Noise Gate
      2. Time-Based Effects
        1. Delay
          1. Delay in Action: Less than 15 ms
          2. Delay in Action: 15 to 35 ms
          3. Delay in Action: More than 35 ms
        2. Reverb
          1. Reverb Types
        3. Psychoacoustic Enhancement
        4. Pitch Shifting
          1. Time and Pitch Changes
          2. Automatic Pitch Correction
        5. Multiple-Effects Devices
    5. Dynamic Effects Automation and Editing
  22. Chapter 16 Noise Reduction
    1. Digital Noise Reduction
      1. Fast Fourier Transform
        1. Restoration
      2. Single-Ended Noise-Reduction Process
        1. The Noise Gate
  23. Chapter 17 The Art and Technology of Mixing
    1. The Art of Mixing
      1. Listening
        1. Ear Training
      2. Preparation
        1. Fixing It in the Mix
        2. Preparing for the Mix
          1. Providing a Reference Track
        3. Gain Structure
        4. Human Factors
    2. A Review of the Recording Process
      1. Recording
        1. Monitoring
      2. Overdubbing
    3. The Technology of Mixing
    4. Understanding the Underlying Concept of “The Mixing Surface”
      1. The Mixer/Console Input Strip
        1. Gain Level Optimization
        2. 1. Channel Input (Preamp)
          1. Hardware Console/Mixer Insert Point
          2. Virtual DAW Insert Point
        3. 2. Auxiliary Send Section
        4. 3. Equalization
        5. 4. Dynamics Section
        6. 5. Monitor Section
          1. In-Line Monitoring
          2. Direct Insert Monitoring
          3. Separate Monitor Section
        7. 6. Channel Fader
        8. 7. Output Section
        9. 8. Channel Assignment
        10. 9. Grouping
        11. 10. Main Output Mix Bus
        12. 11. Monitor Level Section
        13. 12. Patch Bay
        14. 13. Metering
          1. The Finer Points of Metering
          2. The VU Meter
          3. The Average/Peak Meter
      2. Digital Console and DAW Mixer/Controller Technology
        1. The Virtual Input Strip
        2. The DAW Software Mixer Surface
        3. Mix-Down Level and Effects Automation
          1. Write Mode
          2. Read Mode
          3. Drawn (Rubber Band) Automation
    5. The Finer Points of Mixing
      1. Mixing and Balancing Basics
    6. A Final Footnote on the Art of Mixing
  24. Chapter 18 Monitoring
    1. Speaker and Room Considerations
      1. Monitor Speaker Types
        1. Far-Field Monitoring
        2. Near-Field Monitoring
        3. Small Speakers
        4. Headphones
        5. Earbuds
        6. In-Ear Monitoring
        7. Your Car
      2. Speaker Design
        1. Active Powered vs. Passive Speaker Design.
      3. Speaker Polarity
      4. Balancing Speaker Levels
    2. Monitoring
      1. Monitor Level Control
        1. Monitor Volume
      2. Spectral Reference
      3. Monitoring Configurations in the Studio
        1. 1.0 Mono
        2. 2.0 Stereo
        3. 2+1 Stereo + Sub
      4. Monitoring in the Recording Space
        1. Headphones in the Studio
        2. Playback Speakers in the Studio
  25. Chapter 19 Immersive Audio (5.1 and Beyond)
    1. Immersive Audio: Past to the Present
      1. Stereo Comes to Television
      2. Theaters Hit Home
      3. Today’s Immersive Audio Experience
    2. Mixing in Surround
      1. Surround Hardware/Software
        1. Surround Interfacing
        2. Surround Channel Assignments
    3. Monitoring in 5.1 and Beyond
      1. 5.1 Speaker Placement and Setup
        1. The LFE
        2. Bass Management in a Surround System
        3. Practical 5.1 Placement
        4. 5.0 Surround Minus an LFE
        5. 7.1 Speaker Placement
        6. 9.1 and 11.1 Height Channels—Adding to the Experience
          1. Dolby Atmos
          2. Auro Technologies Auro3D
      2. Active/Passive Monitors in Surround
      3. Noise Calibration
      4. Desert Island Reference Files/Discs
    4. Surround Final Mastering and Delivery Formats
      1. Uncompressed PCM Audio
      2. Dolby Digital (AC3)
      3. DTS
      4. MP4
      5. FLAC
      6. Down-Mix/Up-Mix
        1. Down-Mix from 5.1
        2. Up-Mix to 5.1
    5. Authoring for Immersive
    6. Reissuing Back Catalog Material
  26. Chapter 20 Mastering
    1. The Final Mix
      1. Getting Too Close to the Mix
    2. Hiring a Professional Mastering Engineer
    3. To Master or Not to Master—Was That the Question?
      1. “Pre”-paration
      2. Providing Stems
      3. Providing a Reference Track
      4. To Be There, Or Not to Be There
      5. Sequencing: The Natural Order of Things
    4. To Master or Not to Master the Project Yourself—That’s the Next Question!
      1. The Zen of Self Self-Mastering?
        1. Desert Island Mixes
      2. Two-Step or One-Step (Integrated) Mastering Option
      3. Understanding the Signal Chain
    5. Mastering the Details of a Project
      1. Sound File Volume
      2. Sound File Resolution
      3. Dither
      4. Relative Volumes
      5. EQ
      6. Dynamics
        1. Compression in Mastering
        2. Limiting in Mastering
        3. Multiband Dynamic Processing in Mastering
        4. Mid/Side Processing
      7. Mastering Plug-Ins
      8. On a Final Note
  27. Chapter 21 Product Manufacture and Distribution
    1. Product Manufacture
      1. The CD
        1. The CD Manufacture Process
        2. CD Burning
      2. DVD and Blu-ray Burning
      3. Optical Disc Handling and Care
      4. Vinyl
        1. Disc Cutting
          1. Disc-Cutting Lathe
          2. Cutting Head
          3. Pitch Control
          4. The LP Mastering Process
          5. Vinyl Disc Plating and Pressing
    2. Product Distribution
      1. Online Distribution
        1. Uploading to Stardom
        2. Build Your Own Website
        3. Thoughts on Being (and Getting Heard) in Cyberspace
        4. Streaming
        5. Free Streaming Services
          1. Internet Radio
        6. Money for Nothin’ and the Chicks
      2. Legal Issues
        1. Royalties and Other Business Issues
        2. Ownership of the Masters
        3. Registering Your Work
          1. Form SR
          2. Form PA
        4. Collecting the $$$
      3. Further Reading
  28. Chapter 22 Studio Tips and Tricks
    1. Preparation and the Details
      1. What’s a Producer and Do You Really Need One?
      2. Do You Need a Music Lawyer?
    2. A Short, Step-by-Step Overview of the Production Process
      1. 1. Long Before Going into the Studio
      2. 2. Before Going into the Studio
      3. 3. Going into the Studio
      4. 4. Setting Up
      5. 5. Session Documentation
      6. 6. Recording
      7. 7. Mix-Down
      8. 8. Mastering
      9. 9. Backup and Archive Strategies
      10. 10. Household Tips
      11. 11. Personal Skills and Tools
      12. 12. Protect Your Investment
      13. 13. Protect Your Hardware
      14. 14. Update Your Software
      15. 15. Read Your Manuals
      16. 16. A Word on Professionalism
    3. In Conclusion
  29. Chapter 23 Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
    1. Yesterday
    2. Today
    3. Tomorrow
    4. Happy Trails
  30. Index