Within shaping, the four starting shapes are introduced: a sine curve, circle, cylinder and sphere. A sine curve and circle are defined with two coordinates (x, y), while three-dimensional shapes (cylinder and sphere) are defined by x, y and z. A sine curve is simply defined by a function of sine and the u-parameter. A circle is defined by a function of sine and cosine. The v-parameter allows the circle to transform into a surface: a cylinder is an extruded circle, or a circle with a z-coordinate value of v. A cylinder can easily morph into a helix, helicoid, cone or sphere.