Within the trigonometric functions (sine, cosine) there are parameters (u, v). Within cutting, these parameters control the end points of a curve. However, when these parameters are scaled while embedded inside a trigonometric function [for example, sin(A(u)), where A is a scaling factor], they control the frequency of the curve defined. For example, if the parameter is doubled, the output would yield double the number of periods over the same length. Multiplying the parameter also multiplies the frequency of the curve.