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Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar

Book Description

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indication, and 3-D imaging. The book pays particular attention to the signal processing aspects of various multi-antenna SAR from a top-level system perspective.

Explore Recent Extensions of Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems

The backbone of the book is a series of innovative microwave remote sensing approaches developed by the author. Centered around multi-antenna SAR imaging, these approaches address specific challenges and potential problems in future microwave remote sensing. Chapters examine single-input multiple-output (SIMO) multi-antenna SAR, including azimuth and elevation multi-antenna SAR, and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) SAR. The book details the corresponding system scheme, signal models, time/phase/spatial synchronization methods, and high-precision imaging algorithms. It also investigates their potential applications.

Introductory Tutorials and Novel Approaches in Multi-Antenna SAR Imaging

Rigorous and self-contained, this is a unique reference for researchers and industry professionals working with microwave remote sensing, SAR imaging, and radar signal processing. In addition to novel approaches, the book also presents tutorials that serve as an introduction to multi-antenna SAR imaging for those who are new to the field.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. List of Figures
  7. List of Tables
  8. Author Bios
  9. Preface
  10. Abbreviations
  11. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 What is Multi-Antenna SAR
      1. 1.1.1 Multichannel SAR
        1. 1.1.1.1 Multiple Channels in Elevation
        2. 1.1.1.2 Multiple Channels in Azimuth
        3. 1.1.1.3 Multiple Channels in Azimuth and Elevation
      2. 1.1.2 Multi-Antenna SAR
        1. 1.1.2.1 SIMO Multi-Antenna SAR
        2. 1.1.2.2 MIMO Multi-Antenna SAR
    2. 1.2 Multi-Antenna SAR Potentials and Challenges
      1. 1.2.1 Benefits of Multi-Antenna SAR
        1. 1.2.1.1 Improved System Gain
        2. 1.2.1.2 Increased Degrees-of-Freedom
      2. 1.2.2 Application Potentials
        1. 1.2.2.1 High-Resolution Wide-Swath Remote Sensing
        2. 1.2.2.2 Ground Moving Targets Indication
        3. 1.2.2.3 Three-Dimensional Imaging
      3. 1.2.3 Technical Challenges
        1. 1.2.3.1 Waveform Diversity Design
        2. 1.2.3.2 Spatial, Time and Phase Synchronization
        3. 1.2.3.3 High-Precision Imaging Algorithm
    3. 1.3 Organization of the Book
  12. 2 Background Material
    1. 2.1 Convolution and Correlation
      1. 2.1.1 Convolution Integral
      2. 2.1.2 Convolution Theorem
      3. 2.1.3 Correlation Function
      4. 2.1.4 Relations Between Convolution and Correlation
    2. 2.2 Sampling Theorem and Interpolation
      1. 2.2.1 Sampling
      2. 2.2.2 Interpolation
      3. 2.2.3 Aliasing Effects
    3. 2.3 Linearly Frequency Modulated Signal and Matched Filtering
      1. 2.3.1 Principle of Stationary Phase
      2. 2.3.2 LFM Signal
      3. 2.3.3 Matched Filtering
      4. 2.3.4 Pulse Compression
    4. 2.4 Radar Ambiguity Function
      1. 2.4.1 Range Ambiguity Function
      2. 2.4.2 Velocity Ambiguity Function
      3. 2.4.3 Properties of the Ambiguity Function
      4. 2.4.4 Example: LFM Ambiguity Function
    5. 2.5 Basic Principle of Synthetic Aperture
      1. 2.5.1 Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging
        1. 2.5.2 Remote Sensing Swath Width
        2. 2.5.3 System Sensitivity
        3. 2.5.4 Ambiguity-to-Signal Ratio
          1. 2.5.4.1 Azimuth Ambiguity-to-Signal Ratio
          2. 2.5.4.2 Range Ambiguity-to-Signal Ratio
    6. 2.6 Point Spread Function
    7. 2.7 Basic Image Formation Algorithm
      1. 2.7.1 Two-Dimensional Spectrum Model
      2. 2.7.2 Range-Doppler (RD) Algorithm
      3. 2.7.3 Chirp-Scaling (CS) Algorithm
      4. 2.7.4 Numerical Simulation Examples
  13. 3 Azimuth Multi-Antenna SAR
    1. 3.1 Constraints on Resolution and Swath
    2. 3.2 Displaced Phase Center Antenna Technique
    3. 3.3 Single-Phase Center Multibeam SAR
      1. 3.3.1 Azimuth Multichannel Signal Processing
      2. 3.3.2 System Performance Analysis
    4. 3.4 Multiple-Phase Center Multibeam SAR
      1. 3.4.1 System Scheme and Signal Model
      2. 3.4.2 Nonuniform Spatial Sampling
      3. 3.4.3 Azimuth Signal Reconstruction Algorithm
      4. 3.4.4 System Performance Analysis
      5. 3.4.5 Numerical Simulation Results
    5. 3.5 Azimuth Scanning Multibeam SAR
      1. 3.5.1 Signal Model
      2. 3.5.2 System Performance Analysis
    6. 3.6 Azimuth Multi-Antenna SAR in GMTI
      1. 3.6.1 GMTI via Two-Antenna SAR
      2. 3.6.2 Three-Antenna SAR
      3. 3.6.3 Simulation Results
    7. 3.7 Conclusion
  14. 4 Elevation-Plane Multi-Antenna SAR
    1. 4.1 Null Steering in the Elevation-Plane
    2. 4.2 Elevation-Plane Multi-Antenna SAR
    3. 4.3 Several Practical Issues
      1. 4.3.1 PRF Design
      2. 4.3.2 Ill-Condition of the Sensing Matrix
      3. 4.3.3 Interferences of Nadir Echoes
      4. 4.3.4 Blind Range Problem
    4. 4.4 Multi-Antenna Chirp Scaling Imaging Algorithm
    5. 4.5 System Performance Analysis
      1. 4.5.1 RASR Analysis
      2. 4.5.2 SNR Analysis
    6. 4.6 Numerical Simulation Results
    7. 4.7 Conclusion
  15. 5 MIMO SAR Waveform Diversity and Design
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Polyphase-Coded Waveform
    3. 5.3 Discrete Frequency-Coding Waveform
    4. 5.4 Random Stepped-Frequency Waveform
      1. 5.4.1 Basic RSF Waveforms
      2. 5.4.2 RSF-LFM Waveforms
      3. 5.4.3 Phase-Modulated RSF Waveforms
    5. 5.5 OFDM Waveform
      1. 5.5.1 OFDM Single-Pulse Waveform
      2. 5.5.2 Ambiguity Function Analysis
    6. 5.6 OFDM Chirp Waveform
      1. 5.6.1 Chirp Diverse Waveform
      2. 5.6.2 OFDM Chirp Diverse Waveform
      3. 5.6.3 Waveform Synthesis and Generation
    7. 5.7 Constant-Envelope OFDM Waveform
      1. 5.7.1 Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
      2. 5.7.2 Constant-Envelope OFDM Pulse
    8. 5.8 Conclusion
  16. 6 MIMO SAR in High-Resolution Wide-Swath Imaging
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 MIMO SAR System Scheme
      1. 6.2.1 Signal Models
      2. 6.2.2 Equivalent Phase Center
    3. 6.3 Multidimensional Waveform Encoding SAR HRWS Imaging
      1. 6.3.1 Multidimensional Encoding Radar Pulses
      2. 6.3.2 Intrapulse Beamsteering in the Elevation Dimension
      3. 6.3.3 Digital Beamforming in Azimuth
      4. 6.3.4 Range Ambiguity to Signal Ratio Analysis
    4. 6.4 MIMO SAR HRWS Imaging
      1. 6.4.1 Transmit Subaperturing MIMO Technique
      2. 6.4.2 Transmit Subaperturing for HRWS Imaging
        1. 6.4.2.1 NTNR Operation Mode
        2. 6.4.2.2 NTWR Operation Mode
      3. 6.4.3 Range Ambiguity to Signal Ratio Analysis
      4. 6.4.4 Image Formation Algorithms
      5. 6.4.5 Numerical Simulation Results
    5. 6.5 Space-Time Coding MIMO SAR HRWS Imaging
      1. 6.5.1 Space-Time Block Coding
      2. 6.5.2 Space-Time Coding MIMO SAR Scheme
      3. 6.5.2.1 Space-Time Coding Transmission in Azimuth
      4. 6.5.2.2 MIMO Configuration in Elevation
    6. 6.5.3 Digital Beamforming in Elevation
    7. 6.5.4 Azimuth Signal Processing
    8. 6.6 Conclusion
  17. 7 MIMO SAR in Moving Target Indication
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 MIMO SAR with Multiple Antennas in Azimuth
    3. 7.3 Adaptive Matched Filtering
    4. 7.4 Moving Target Indication via Three-Antenna MIMO SAR
    5. 7.5 Moving Target Indication via Two-Antenna MIMO SAR
      1. 7.5.1 DPCA and ATI Combined GMTI Model
      2. 7.5.2 Estimating the Moving Target’s Doppler Parameters
      3. 7.5.3 Focusing the Moving Targets
    6. 7.6 Imaging Simulation Results
    7. 7.7 Conclusion
  18. 8 Distributed Multi-Antenna SAR Time and Phase Synchronization
    1. 8.1 Frequency Stability in Frequency Sources
    2. 8.1.1 Oscillator Output Signal Model
    3. 8.1.2 Frequency-Domain Representation
    4. 8.1.3 Time-Domain Representation
      1. 8.1.3.1 True Variance
      2. 8.1.3.2 Sample Variance
      3. 8.1.3.3 Allan Variance
      4. 8.1.3.4 Modified Allan Variance
    5. 8.2 Time and Phase Synchronization Problem in Distributed SAR Systems
    6. 8.3 Impacts of Oscillator Frequency Instability
      1. 8.3.1 Analytical Model of Phase Noise
      2. 8.3.2 Impact of Phase Synchronization Errors
      3. 8.3.3 Impact of Time Synchronization Errors
    7. 8.4 Direct-Path Signal-Based Time and Phase Synchronization
      1. 8.4.1 Time Synchronization
      2. 8.4.2 Phase Synchronization
      3. 8.4.3 Prediction of Synchronization Performance
        1. 8.4.3.1 Receiver Noise
        2. 8.4.3.2 Amplifiers
        3. 8.4.3.3 Analog-Digital-Converter (ADC)
      4. 8.4.4 Other Possible Errors
    8. 8.5 GPS-Based Time and Phase Synchronization
      1. 8.5.1 System Architecture
      2. 8.5.2 Frequency Synthesis
      3. 8.5.3 Measuring Synchronization Errors between Osc_PPS and GPS_PPS Signals
      4. 8.5.4 GPS_PPS Prediction in the Presence of GPS Signal
      5. 8.5.5 Compensation for Residual Time Synchronization Errors
      6. 8.5.6 Compensation for Residual Phase Synchronization Errors
      7. 8.5.7 Synchronization Performance Analysis
    9. 8.6 Phase Synchronization Link
      1. 8.6.1 Two-Way Synchronization Link
      2. 8.6.2 Synchronization Performance
        1. 8.6.2.1 Continuous Duplex Synchronization
        2. 8.6.2.2 Pulsed Duplex Synchronization
        3. 8.6.2.3 Pulsed Alternate Synchronization
      3. 8.6.3 One-Way Synchronization Link
        1. 8.6.3.1 Synchronization Scheme
        2. 8.6.3.2 Synchronization Performance
    10. 8.7 Transponder-Based Phase Synchronization
    11. 8.8 Conclusion
  19. 9 Distributed Multi-Antenna SAR Antenna Synchronization
    1. 9.1 Impacts of Antenna Directing Errors
      1. 9.1.1 Impacts of Range Antenna Directing Errors
      2. 9.1.2 Impacts of Azimuth Antenna Directing Errors
      3. 9.1.3 Impacts of Antenna Directing Errors on Distributed InSAR Imaging
    2. 9.2 Beam Scan-On-Scan Technique
      1. 9.2.1 One Transmitting Beam and Multiple Receiving Beams
      2. 9.2.2 One Transmitting Beam and Flood Receiving Beam
      3. 9.2.3 Flood Transmitting Beam and One Receiving Beam
      4. 9.2.4 Flood Transmitting Beam and Multiple Receiving Beams
      5. 9.2.5 Flood Transmitting Beam and Flood Receiving Beam
    3. 9.3 Pulse Chasing Technique
    4. 9.4 Sliding Spotlight and Footprint Chasing
      1. 9.4.1 Transmitter Sliding Spotlight and Receiver Footprint Chasing
      2. 9.4.2 Transmitter Staring Spotlight and Receiver Footprint Chasing
      3. 9.4.3 Azimuth Resolution
    5. 9.5 Multibeam Forming on Receiver
    6. 9.6 Determination of Baseline and Orientation
      1. 9.6.1 Four-Antenna-Based Method
      2. 9.6.2 Three-Antenna-Based Method
    7. 9.7 Conclusion
  20. 10 Azimuth-Variant Multi-Antenna SAR Image Formulation Processing
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Imaging Performance Analysis
      1. 10.2.1 Imaging Time and Imaging Coverage
      2. 10.2.2 Range Resolution
      3. 10.2.3 Azimuth Resolution
      4. 10.2.4 Simulation Results
    3. 10.3 Azimuth-Variant Characteristics Analysis
      1. 10.3.1 Doppler Characteristics
      2. 10.3.2 Two-Dimensional Spectrum Characteristics
    4. 10.4 Motion Compensation
    5. 10.5 Azimuth-Variant Bistatic SAR Imaging Algorithm
    6. 10.6 Conclusion
  21. 11 Multi-Antenna SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Downward-Looking SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
      1. 11.2.1 Signal and Data Model
      2. 11.2.2 Imaging Resolution Analysis
      3. 11.2.3 Three-Dimensional Range Migration Algorithm
    3. 11.3 Side-Looking SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
      1. 11.3.1 InSAR for Terrain Elevation Mapping
      2. 11.3.2 Side-Looking Linear Array SAR
    4. 11.4 Forward-Looking SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
    5. 11.5 Frequency Diverse Array SAR Three-Dimensional Imaging
      1. 11.5.1 FDA System and Signal Model
      2. 11.5.2 Application Potentials in Target Imaging
      3. 11.5.3 Several Discussions
        1. 11.5.3.1 Waveform Optimization
        2. 11.5.3.2 Array Configuration
        3. 11.5.3.3 Optimal Array Processing
    6. 11.6 Conclusion
  22. Bibliography
  23. Index