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Multifunctional Agriculture

Book Description

In a world increasingly challenged by the need to integrate and understand highly specialized knowledge in a multidisciplinary way, this book is innovative and perhaps unique in addressing this challenge.  It focuses on ideas, strategies, techniques and practices spanning many disciplines at the interface of agriculture with: forestry, horticulture, plant physiology, genetics, ecology, soil science, food science, economics, and the social and environmental sciences as delivered by intensified and enriched agroforestry. Multifunctional Agriculture addresses this complexity, using case studies and insights from the needs of African farmers whose livelihoods are constrained by complex interactions between social, environmental and economic factors and problems underlying agricultural sustainability in Africa. This book, therefore, provides an important resource for those trying to understand the role of agriculture in the achievement of the new Sustainable Development Goals by providing easily implementable, practical and effective methodologies and practices. 

  • Provides a single-source, comprehensive insight into agroforestry/ multifunctional agriculture, it's potential, challenges, and progress
  • Helps readers understand and assess potential opportunity through implementation
  • Includes case studies and real-world insights that address common situations and the practical application of best practices
  • Explores the role of multi-functional agriculture in mitigating climate change impacts, providing value-story beyond crop production

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Biography
  6. Preface
  7. Part I: The Basics
    1. Section 1: Agroecology and the Role of Trees
      1. Section 1. Agroecology and the Role of Trees
      2. Chapter 1. Definition of Agroforestry Revisited: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 1996. Agroforestry Today, 8 (1), 5–7, with permission of World Agroforestry Center
        1. Abstract
      3. Chapter 2. The Role of Trees in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture in the Tropics: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 2014. Annual Review of Phytopathology 52, 113–133, with permission of Annual Reviews
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Understanding the Problem Before Seeking Solutions
        5. Addressing Soil Fertility
        6. Biodiversity and Agroecological Functions
        7. Rebuilding Agroecological Functions
        8. Maintaining Late Successional or Mature Agroecosystems
        9. Filling the Niches Below the Canopy With Useful Plants
        10. Landscape and Scaling Issues
        11. The Big Picture: The Role of Agroecology and Agroforestry in Tropical Agriculture
      4. Chapter 3. Trees: A Keystone Role in Agroecosystem Function: An Update: R.R.B. Leakey
        1. Abstract
    2. Section 2: Agroforestry Practices and Systems
      1. Section 2. Agroforestry Practices and Systems
      2. Chapter 4. Agroforestry and the Mitigation of Land Degradation in the Humid and Sub-Humid Tropics of Africa: This chapter was previously published in Cooper, P.J.M., Leakey, R.R.B., Rao, M.R., Reynolds, L., 1996. Experimental Agriculture, 32, 235–290, with permission of Cambridge University Press
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Land Degradation
        4. The Role of Agroforestry
        5. Soil Fertility Improvement
        6. Soil Conservation
        7. Multipurpose Trees and Shrubs as Fodder Supplements
        8. High-Value Trees for Income Generation
        9. Conclusion
        10. Acknowledgments
      3. Chapter 5. The Domestication and Commercialization of Indigenous Trees in Agroforestry for the Alleviation of Poverty: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Simons, A.J., 1998. Agroforestry Systems, 38, 165–176, with permission of Springer
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Domestication Strategies
        5. Research in Progress
        6. Commercialization
        7. Conclusion
      4. Chapter 6. Trees: Delivering Enhanced Crop Production and Income: An Update: R.R.B. Leakey
        1. Abstract
    3. Section 3: Importance of Tree Products
      1. Section 3. Importance of Tree Products
      2. Chapter 7. Potential for Novel Food Products From Agroforestry Trees: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 1999. Food Chemistry, 64, 1–14, with permission of Elsevier
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Humid Lowlands of West Africa
        5. Semi-Arid Lowlands of West Africa
        6. Southern African Plateau—Miombo Woodlands
        7. Western Amazonia
        8. Conclusions
      3. Chapter 8. Evidence that Subsistence Farmers have Domesticated Indigenous Fruits (Dacryodes edulis and Irvingia gabonensis) in Cameroon and Nigeria: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Tchoundjeu, Z., Smith, R.I., Munro, R.C., Fondoun, J-.M., Kengue, J., Anegbeh, P.O., Atangana, A.R., Waruhiu, A.N., Asaah, E., Usoro, C. and Ukafor, V., 2004. Agroforestry Systems, 60, 101–111, with permission of Springer) in Cameroon and Nigeria: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Tchoundjeu, Z., Smith, R.I., Munro, R.C., Fondoun, J-.M., Kengue, J., Anegbeh, P.O., Atangana, A.R., Waruhiu, A.N., Asaah, E., Usoro, C. and Ukafor, V., 2004. Agroforestry Systems, 60, 101–111, with permission of Springer
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Materials and Methods
        5. Results
        6. Discussion
        7. Acknowledgments
      4. Chapter 9. Non-Timber Forest Products – A Misnomer?: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 2012. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 24, 145–146, with permission of Forest Research Institute of Malaysia
        1. Abstract
      5. Chapter 10. Trees: An Important Source of Food and Non-Food Products for Farmers: An Update: R.R.B. Leakey
        1. Abstract
  8. Part II: Genetic Selection for Added-Value and New Opportunities
    1. Section 4: Tree Domestication
      1. Section 4. Tree Domestication
      2. Chapter 11. Domestication of Forest Trees: A Process to Secure the Productivity and Future Diversity of Tropical Ecosystems: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Last, F.T., Longman, K.A., 1982. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 61, 33–42, with permission of Commonwealth Forestry Association
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Exploitation of Natural Forest and the Needs of the Future
        5. Domestication of Underutilized Timber Species
        6. Domestication of Species for Fruit and Other Forest Products
        7. Plantations in the Tropics
        8. Acknowledgments
      3. Chapter 12. Tree Domestication in Tropical Agroforestry: This chapter was previously published in Simons, A.J., Leakey, R.R.B., 2004. Agroforestry Systems, 61, 167–181, with permission of Springer
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Origins and Concepts of Domestication
        5. Objectives of Tree Domestication
        6. Tree Domestication Strategies
        7. Germplasm Sourcing, Documentation, and Deployment
        8. Tree Improvement Research
        9. Participatory Domestication
        10. Case Studies
        11. Recommendations: Future Developments
      4. Chapter 13. Agroforestry Tree Products (AFTPs): Targeting Poverty Reduction and Enhanced Livelihoods: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Tchoundjeu, Z., Schreckenberg, K., Shackleton, S., Shackleton, C., 2005. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 3, 1–23, with permission of Taylor & Francis
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Trees
        5. The Participatory Tree Domestication Approach—the Case of West and Central Africa
        6. Identification, Capture, Retention, and Protection of Genetic Diversity
        7. Cultivation and the Growth of Cultivars
        8. Markets
        9. Economic and Social Benefits from Trading AFTPs
        10. The Linkages between the Domestication and Commercialization of AFTPs
        11. Winners and Losers: Impacts on Livelihoods
        12. Features of this Agroforestry Approach to Rural Development
        13. Policy Guidelines
        14. Development Issues for the Future
      5. Chapter 14. Tree Domestication in Agroforestry: Progress in the Second Decade (2003–2012): This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Weber, J.C., Page, T., Cornelius, J.P., Akinnifesi, F.K., Roshetko, J.M., Tchoundjeu, Z., Jamnadass, R., 2012. In: Nair, P.K., Garrity, D. (Eds.), Agroforestry – The Future of Global Land Use. Springer, USA, pp. 145–173, with permission of Springer
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. The First Decade (1992–2002)
        5. The Second Decade (2003–12)
        6. Recent Developments in Agroforestry Tree Improvement
        7. Negotiation of Access to Markets
        8. Public/Private Partnerships: Localization and the Case of Allanblackia spp
        9. Toward the Third Decade
      6. Chapter 15. Trees: Capturing Useful Traits in Elite Cultivars: An Update: R.R.B. Leakey
        1. Abstract
  9. Part III: Research Methods
    1. Section 5: Strategy and Techniques
      1. Section 5. Strategy and Techniques
      2. Section 5.1: Strategy
        1. Chapter 16. Towards a Domestication Strategy for Indigenous Fruit Trees in the Tropics: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Akinnifesi, F.K., 2008. In: Akinnifesi, F.K., Leakey, R.R.B., Ajayi, O.C., Sileshi, G., Tchoundjeu, Z., Matakala, P., Kwesiga, F. (Eds.) Indigenous Fruit Trees in the Tropics: Domestication, Utilization and Commercialization. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp. 28–49, with permission from CABI
          1. Abstract
          2. Introduction
          3. Developing a Strategy for Creating New “Cultivars” Vegetatively
          4. Developing a Strategy for Clonal Selection
          5. Opportunities for Introducing New Variation
          6. The Wise Use of Genetic Variability
          7. Socioeconomic and Environmental Context for This Strategy
          8. Conclusions
      3. Section 5.2: Techniques: Vegetative Propagation
        1. Chapter 17. Low-Technology Techniques for the Vegetative Propagation of Tropical Trees: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Mesén, J.F., Tchoundjeu, Z., Longman, K.A., Dick, J. McP., Newton, A.C., Matin, A., Grace, J., Munro, R.C. and Muthoka, P.N., 1990. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 69, 247–257, with permission from Commonwealth Forestry Association
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Materials and Methods
          5. The Nonmist Propagator
          6. Results
          7. Discussion
        2. Chapter 18. Stockplant Factors Affecting Root Initiation in Cuttings of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum., an Indigenous Hardwood of West Africa: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 1983. Journal of Horticultural Science, 58, 277–290, with permission from Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology K. Schum., an Indigenous Hardwood of West Africa: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 1983. Journal of Horticultural Science, 58, 277–290, with permission from Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Materials and Methods
          5. Experimental and Results
          6. Discussion
          7. Acknowledgements
        3. Chapter 19. The Rooting Ability of Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum. Cuttings: The Interactions Between Stockplant Irradiance, Light Quality and Nutrients: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Storeton-West, R., 1992. Forest Ecology and Management, 49, 133–150, with permission of Elsevier K. Schum. Cuttings: The Interactions Between Stockplant Irradiance, Light Quality and Nutrients: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Storeton-West, R., 1992. Forest Ecology and Management, 49, 133–150, with permission of Elsevier
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Materials and Methods
          5. Results
          6. Discussion
          7. Acknowledgments
        4. Chapter 20. Plant Cloning: Macro-Propagation: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 2014. In: van Alfen, N., et al., (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, vol. 4. Elsevier, San Diego, pp. 349–359, with permission of Elsevier
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. The Use of Macropropagation
          5. Techniques of Macropropagation
          6. Grafting and Budding
          7. Marcotting or Air Layering
          8. Stem Cuttings
          9. Stockplant Environment
          10. Conclusions
      4. Section 5.3: Techniques: Genetic Characterization
        1. Chapter 21. Quantitative Descriptors of Variation in the Fruits and Seeds of Irvingia gabonensis: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Fondoun, J-.M., Atangana, A., Tchoundjeu, Z., 2000. Agroforestry Systems, 50, 47–58, with permission of Springer: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Fondoun, J-.M., Atangana, A., Tchoundjeu, Z., 2000. Agroforestry Systems, 50, 47–58, with permission of Springer
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Methods and Materials
          5. Results
          6. Discussion
          7. Acknowledgments
        2. Chapter 22. Domestication Potential of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp caffra) in South Africa and Namibia: 1. Phenotypic Variation in Fruit Traits: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Shackleton, S., du Plessis, P., 2005. Agroforestry Systems, 64, 25–35, with permission of Springer) in South Africa and Namibia: 1. Phenotypic Variation in Fruit Traits: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Shackleton, S., du Plessis, P., 2005. Agroforestry Systems, 64, 25–35, with permission of Springer
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Methods and Materials
          5. Results
          6. Discussion
          7. Acknowledgments
        3. Chapter 23. Domestication Potential of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) in South Africa and Namibia: 2. Phenotypic Variation in Nut and Kernel Traits: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Pate, K., Lombard, C., 2005. Agroforestry Systems, 64, 37–49, with permission of Springer) in South Africa and Namibia: 2. Phenotypic Variation in Nut and Kernel Traits: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Pate, K., Lombard, C., 2005. Agroforestry Systems, 64, 37–49, with permission of Springer
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Methods and Materials
          5. Results
          6. Discussion
          7. Acknowledgments
        4. Chapter 24. Domestication Potential of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) in South Africa and Namibia: 3. Multiple Trait Selection: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 2005. Agroforestry Systems, 64, 51–59, with permission of Springer) in South Africa and Namibia: 3. Multiple Trait Selection: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 2005. Agroforestry Systems, 64, 51–59, with permission of Springer
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Methods and Materials
          5. Results
          6. Discussion
          7. Acknowledgments
      5. Section 5.4: Techniques: Ideotypes
        1. Chapter 25. The “Ideotype Concept” and its Application to the Selection of “AFTP” Cultivars: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Page, T., 2006. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 16, 5–16.
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Domestication of Agroforestry Trees
          5. Ideotypes in Agroforestry Species
          6. Conclusion
        2. Chapter 26. Trees: Skills and Understanding Essential for Domestication: An Update: R.R.B. Leakey
          1. Abstract
          2. Strategy
          3. Vegetative Propagation
          4. Genetic Characterization
          5. Ideotypes
  10. Part IV: Towards Delivery
    1. Section 6: A Bottom-Up Approach
      1. Section 6. A Bottom-Up Approach
      2. Section 6.1: Participatory Tree Domestication
        1. Chapter 27. The Participatory Domestication of West African Indigenous Fruits: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., Schreckenberg, K., Tchoundjeu, Z., 2003. International Forestry Review, 5, 338–347, with permission from Commonwealth Forestry Association
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Methods
          5. Results and Discussion
          6. Acknowledgments
        2. Chapter 28. Agroforestry—Participatory Domestication of Trees: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 2014. In: van Alfen, N. et al., (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, vol. 1. Elsevier, San Diego, pp. 253–269, with permission from Elsevier
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Strategy
          5. Techniques
          6. Outcomes
          7. Future Impact
      3. Section 6.2: Intellectual Property Rights
        1. Chapter 29. Protecting the Rights of Farmers and Communities While Securing Long Term Market Access for Producers of Non-timber Forest Products: Experience in Southern Africa: This chapter was previously published in Lombard, C., Leakey, R.R.B., 2010. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 19, 235–249, with permission of Taylor & Francis
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Phytotrade Africa’s Experience
          5. Case Studies
          6. Issues for Further Attention
          7. Conclusion
      4. Section 6.3: Commercialization of Agroforestry Tree Products
        1. Chapter 30. The Role of Tree Domestication in Value Chain Development: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., van Damme, P., 2014. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 23, 116–126, with permission of Taylor & Francis
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Conclusion
      5. Section 6.4: Development and Impact
        1. Chapter 31. Underutilised Species as the Backbone of Multifunctional Agriculture—The Next Wave of Crop Domestication: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B. and Asaah, E.K. 2013. Acta Horticulturae, 979, 293–310, with permission of ISHS
          1. Abstract
          2. Summary
          3. Introduction
          4. Conclusion
          5. Acknowledgments
        2. Chapter 32. Trees: Ensuring That Farmers Benefit From Domestication: An Update: R.R.B. Leakey
          1. Abstract
    2. Section 7: Agroforestry: A Delivery Mechanism for Multifunctional Agriculture
      1. Section 7. Agroforestry: A Delivery Mechanism for Multifunctional Agriculture
      2. Chapter 33. Trees, Soils and Food Security: This chapter was previously published in Sanchez, P.A., Buresh, R.J., Leakey, R.R.B., 1997. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B, 352, 949–961, with permission of The Royal Society
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Impact of Trees on Soil Functions
        5. Trees and Overcoming Rural Poverty in Africa
        6. The Way Forward
      3. Chapter 34. Addressing the Causes of Land Degradation, Food/Nutritional Insecurity and Poverty: A New Approach to Agricultural Intensification in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 2013. In: Hoffman, U. (Ed.), Wake Up Before It Is Too Late: Make Agriculture Truly Sustainable Now for Food Security in a Changing Climate, UNCTAD Trade and Environment Review 2013. UN Publications, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 192–198 (Chapter 3), with permission from United Nations
        1. Abstract
      4. Chapter 35. Trees: A Call to Policy Makers to Meet Farmers’ Needs by Combining Environmental Services With Marketable Products: An Update: R.R.B. Leakey
        1. Abstract
    3. Section 8: Sustainable Intensification of Tropical Agriculture
      1. Section 8. Sustainable Intensification of Tropical Agriculture
      2. Chapter 36. The Intensification of Agroforestry by Tree Domestication for Enhanced Social and Economic Impact: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 2012. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 7 (035), 1–3
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Three Steps to Intensification
        5. Conclusion
        6. Acknowledgments
      3. Chapter 37. Twelve Principles for Better Food and More Food From Mature Perennial Agroecosystems: This chapter was previously published in Leakey, R.R.B., 2014. In: Proceedings of Perennial Crops for Food Security FAO Workshop, (Chapter 22), 28–30 August 2013, Rome, Italy
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. Principles
        5. Sustainable Intensification
      4. Chapter 38. Trees: Delivering Productive and Sustainable Farming Systems: An Update: R.R.B. Leakey
        1. Abstract
    4. Section 9: Integrating Rural Development to Deliver Multifunctional Agriculture
      1. Section 9. Integrating Rural Development to Deliver Multifunctional Agriculture
      2. Chapter 39. Toward Multifunctional Agriculture – An African Initiative: R.R.B. Leakey and R. Prabhu
        1. Abstract
        2. Summary
        3. Introduction
        4. What are the Issues?
        5. Having Identified Action-oriented Targets for Sustainable Intensification, Where Do We Go From Here?
      3. Chapter 40. Trees: Meeting the Social, Economic and Environmental Needs of Poor Farmers—Scoring Sustainable Development Goals: An Update: R.R.B. Leakey
        1. Abstract
  11. References
  12. Index