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Nanoencapsulation Technologies for the Food and Nutraceutical Industries

Book Description

Nanoencapsulation Technologies for the Food and Nutraceutical Industries is a compendium which collects, in an easy and compact way, state-of-the-art details on techniques for nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds in food and nutraceutical industries.

The book addresses important modern technologies, including biopolymer based nano-particle formation techniques, formulation based processes, such as nano-liposomes and nano-emulsions, process based nano-encapsulation, such as electro-spinning and nano-spray drying, natural nano-carrier based processes, like casein and starch nano-particles, and other recent advances.

This definitive reference manual is ideal for researchers and industry personnel who want to learn more about basic concepts and recent developments in nanotechnology research.

  • Serves as a compendium of recent techniques and systems for nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds
  • Brings together basic concepts and the potential of nanoencapsulation technologies, also including their novel applications in functional foods and nutraceutical systems
  • Includes biopolymer based nano-particle formation techniques, formulation based processes, process based nanoencapsulation, and nano-carrier based process

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Front cover figure description
  7. List of contributors
  8. Preface
  9. 1: An overview of nanoencapsulation techniques and their classification
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1. Introduction
    3. 1.2. Encapsulation in the food sector
    4. 1.3. Microencapsulation techniques
    5. 1.4. Nanoencapsulation of food ingredients and nutraceuticals
    6. 1.5. Nanoencapsulation techniques
    7. 1.6. Conclusions and final remarks
  10. Part One: Lipid-Formulation Based Nanoencapsulation Technologies
    1. 2: Encapsulation by nanoemulsions
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1. Introduction
      3. 2.2. Materials used for preparing nanoemulsions
      4. 2.3. Preparation methods
      5. 2.4. Structural emulsions
      6. 2.5. Double emulsions
      7. 2.6. Conclusions and further remarks
    2. 3: Encapsulation by nanoliposomes
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1. Introduction
      3. 3.2. Design of liposomes
      4. 3.3. Determination of encapsulation efficiency
      5. 3.4. Encapsulation of hydrophilic materials
      6. 3.5. Encapsulation of hydrophobic materials
      7. 3.6. Novel techniques in the design of nanoliposomes
      8. 3.7. Phytosomes: highly efficient delivery of phytochemicals
      9. 3.8. Incorporation into food systems
      10. 3.9. Bioactivities of nanoliposomal encapsulation systems
      11. 3.10. Digestion of bioactive bearing nanoliposomes
      12. 3.11. Conclusions and future perspectives
      13. Acknowledgments
    3. 4: Encapsulation by nanostructured lipid carriers
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1. Introduction
      3. 4.2. The logic behind the development of solid lipid nanoparticles
      4. 4.3. First two generations of lipid nanoparticles: SLN vs. NLC
      5. 4.4. The third generation: smartLipids
      6. 4.5. Selection of ingredients for SLN/NLC production—screening
      7. 4.6. Industrial relevant production processes: high pressure homogenization on lab scale
      8. 4.7. Medium and large scale industrial production
      9. 4.8. Regulatory aspects—nanotechnology
      10. 4.9. Chemical stabilization of actives
      11. 4.10. Controlled release—structures of particle matrix
      12. 4.11. Oral delivery in mouth cavity—mechanisms
      13. 4.12. Peroral bioavailability enhancement—mechanism and efficiency
      14. 4.13. Examples of SLN and NLC formulations from food industry
      15. 4.14. Examples of oral bioavailability enhancement
      16. 4.15. Lipid nanoparticle products on the market
      17. 4.16. Commercial suppliers of lipid nanoparticle concentrates
      18. 4.17. Perspectives for food and nutraceutical products
  11. Part Two: Natural Nanocarrier-Based Nanoencapsulation Technologies
    1. 5: Nanocapsule formation by caseins
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1. Introduction
      3. 5.2. Nanoencapsulation of food bioactive components and nutraceuticals by caseins
      4. 5.3. Advantages and disadvantages
      5. 5.4. Insight for future work
    2. 6: Nanocapsule formation by nanocrystals
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1. Introduction
      3. 6.2. Definitions of nanocrystals
      4. 6.3. Special properties of nanocrystals
      5. 6.4. Mechanisms of absorption enhancement
      6. 6.5. Encapsulated (coated) nanocrystals
      7. 6.6. Lab scale and industrial scale production of nanocrystals
      8. 6.7. Nanocrystals in functional drinks
      9. 6.8. Nanocrystal technology in oral nutraceutical products
      10. 6.9. Nanocrystal technology in food products
      11. 6.10. Conclusions and perspectives
    3. 7: Nanocapsule formation by cyclodextrins
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1. Historical background of cyclodextrins
      3. 7.2. Regulatory issues of cyclodextrins
      4. 7.3. Principles of encapsulation by cyclodextrins
      5. 7.4. Encapsulation technologies with cyclodextrins
      6. 7.5. Selecting an encapsulation technology with cyclodextrins
      7. 7.6. Cyclodextrin modification
      8. 7.7. Amphiphilic cyclodextrins
      9. 7.8. Nanoencapsulation with amphiphilic cyclodextrins
      10. 7.9. Effective factors on the characteristics of amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles
      11. 7.10. Formation techniques of the cyclodextrin-based polymeric nanoparticles
      12. 7.11. Cyclodextrin-based magnetic nanoparticles
      13. 7.12. Layer by layer (LBL): an ideal process to form nanoparticles
      14. 7.13. Cyclodextrins in gold nanoparticles
      15. 7.14. Concluding remarks and future trends
  12. Part Three: Nanoencapsulation Technologies Based on Special Equipment
    1. 8: Nanocapsule formation by electrospinning
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1. Introduction
      3. 8.2. Principles of electrospinning
      4. 8.3. Electrospinning versus electrospraying
      5. 8.4. The electrospinning process
      6. 8.5. The physical elements of electrospinning and typical apparatus
      7. 8.6. Base encapsulating materials for electrospinning
      8. 8.7. Conclusions and future trends
    2. 9: Nanocapsule formation by electrospraying
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1. Introduction
      3. 9.2. Electrospraying: an overview
      4. 9.3. Types of electrospraying
      5. 9.4. Parameters for obtaining micro- and nanoparticles
      6. 9.5. Obtaining materials by electrospraying for the food and nutraceutical industries
      7. 9.6. Encapsulation of nutraceuticals
      8. 9.7. Conclusions
    3. 10: Nanocapsules formation by nano spray drying
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1. Introduction
      3. 10.2. Nano spray drying
      4. 10.3. Optimizing the Nano Spray Drying Process Parameters
      5. 10.4. Nano spray drying applications
      6. 10.5. Conclusions
  13. Part Four: Nanoencapsulation Technologies Based on Biopolymer Nanoparticles
    1. 11: Nanocapsule formation by individual biopolymer nanoparticles
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1. Introduction
      3. 11.2. Protein nanoparticles (desolvation method)
      4. 11.3. Polysaccharide nanoparticles (nanoprecipitation method)
      5. 11.4. Future trends
    2. 12: Nanocapsule formation by complexation of biopolymers
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1. Introduction
      3. 12.2. Molecular forces between biopolymers and factors affecting them
      4. 12.3. Application of biopolymer complexes in nanoencapsulation technology
      5. 12.4. Conclusions and future trends
  14. Part Five: Bioavailability, Characterization, and Safety of Nano-Encapsulated Ingredients
    1. 13: Bioavailability and release of bioactive components from nanocapsules
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1. Overview of release
      3. 13.2. Release mechanisms
      4. 13.3. Bioavailability of nutraceuticals and their uptake in gut
      5. 13.4. Different approaches for studying the release profile
      6. 13.5. Release modeling
      7. 13.6. Targeted release
      8. 13.7. Conclusions
    2. 14: Instrumental analysis and characterization of nanocapsules
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1. Introduction
      3. 14.2. Morphology of nanocapsules
      4. 14.3. Size of nanocapsules
      5. 14.4. Electric charge of nanocapsules
      6. 14.5. Surface component of nanocapsules
      7. 14.6. Physicochemical properties of nanocapsules
      8. 14.7. Stability of nanocapsules
      9. 14.8. Image analysis of nanocapsules
      10. 14.9. Fluorescence spectroscopy of nanocapsules
    3. 15: Safety and regulatory issues of nanocapsules
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1. Introduction
      3. 15.2. Safety and toxicity aspects of food nanoparticles
      4. 15.3. Regulatory principles legislated by various organizations and countries
      5. 15.4. Panorama and challenges for the future
      6. 15.5. Conclusions
  15. Index