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Nanostructures for Drug Delivery

Book Description

Nanostructures for Drug Delivery extensively covers the various nanostructured products that have been tested as carriers in target drug delivery systems. In addition, the book analyses the advantages of, and issues related to, using nanostructured materials in drug delivery systems, also detailing various nanocarrier preparation techniques.

As delivering the drug to the target site is a major problem in providing effective treatment for many diseases, this book covers the latest advancements in numerous nanotechnological products that are being used in disease detection, controlled drug delivery, as biosensors, and in tissue engineering that have been developed for more efficient patient healthcare. Due to the versatility of nanostructured materials, it is now possible to deliver a drug at its target site in a more accurate and efficient way.

This volume is an up-to-date, state-of-the-art work that highlights the principal mechanistic aspects related to the delivery of active nanoscale therapeutic agents (natural or synthetic) and their release profile in different environmental media. It highlights nanoscale encapsulation strategies and discusses both organic and inorganic nanomaterials as carriers and delivery platforms.

  • Demonstrates how nanostructures are successfully employed in drug delivery stems and as drug delivery agents, allowing biomaterials scientists and biochemists to create more effective drug delivery systems
  • Offers an overview of recent research into the use of nanostructures in drug delivery techniques in a cogent, synthesized way, allowing readers to quickly familiarize themselves with this area
  • Includes examples of how the application of nanostructures have improved the efficiency of drug delivery systems, showing medical scientists how they are beneficial

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Foreword of the Series
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1: Therapeutic nanomaterials: from a drug delivery perspective
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. General Methods of Synthesis of Nanomaterials
    4. 3. Characterization of Nanomaterials
    5. 4. Applications of Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery
    6. 5. Conclusions
  9. Chapter 2: Core–shell drug carriers: liposomes, polymersomes, and niosomes
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Self-Assembled Bilayers
    4. 3. Liposomes as Drug Carriers
    5. 4. Polymersomes as Drug Carriers
    6. 5. Niosomes as Drug Carriers
    7. 6. Biomedical Applications of Core–Shell Vesicular Drug Carriers
    8. 7. Discussion
    9. 8. Conclusions
    10. Conflict of Interests
  10. Chapter 3: The new nanocarriers based on graphene and graphene oxide for drug delivery applications
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Chemistry of the Graphene Surface
    4. 3. Modification of Graphene Surface for Drug Delivery Applications
    5. 4. In Vitro Toxicology and Biosafety of Graphene Derivative
    6. 5. Conclusions
  11. Chapter 4: Nanostructured nanoparticles for improved drug delivery
    1. Abstract
    2. Abbreviations
    3. 1. Introduction
    4. 2. The Core–Shell Nanostructure
    5. 3. The Capsule and Vesicle Nanostructure
    6. 4. Multicompartment Nanoparticles
    7. 5. Conclusions and Perspectives
    8. Acknowledgments
  12. Chapter 5: Design of functionalized materials for use in micronanoscale drug delivery devices and smart patches
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Traditional Approaches to Drug Delivery
    4. 3. Compliance
    5. 4. Evolution of Smart Drug Delivery Devices
    6. 5. Electrochemical Approaches to Drug Release
    7. 6. Innovation and Application
    8. 7. Conclusions
  13. Chapter 6: Niosomes: a novel approach in modern drug delivery systems
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Factors Affecting the Formation of Niosomes
    4. 3. Types of Niosomes
    5. 4. Niosome Preparation
    6. 5. Characterization
    7. 6. Advantages of Niosomes
    8. 7. Limitation of Niosomal Drug Delivery System
    9. 8. Comparison of Niosomes Versus Liposomes
    10. 9. In-Vivo Behavior of Niosomes
    11. 10. Pharmaceutical Applications and Administration of Niosomes
    12. 11. Final Consideration and Outlook
  14. Chapter 7: Nanofibrous and nanoparticle materials as drug-delivery systems
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Nanoparticle Materials in Drug-Delivery Systems
    4. 3. Nanofibrous Materials as Drug-Delivery Systems
    5. 4. Future Directions
  15. Chapter 8: Brush polymer-based nanostructures for drug delivery
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Structural Design of BP-Based Drug-Delivery Systems
    4. 3. BP-Based Encapsulated Drug-Delivery Systems
    5. 4. BP-Based Conjugated Drug-Delivery Systems
    6. 5. Multifunctional BP-Based Drug-Delivery Systems
    7. 6. Summary
    8. Acknowledgments
  16. Chapter 9: Drug delivery systems based on titania nanostructures
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Nanostructured TiO2 Used for Drug Delivery Systems
    4. 3. Drug Loading
    5. 4. Drug Release
    6. 5. Functionalization of TiO2 Nanostructures
    7. 6. Other Types of Nanostructured TiO2 Used as Drug Delivery Systems
    8. 7. Conclusions
  17. Chapter 10: Redox activated polymeric nanoparticles in tumor therapy
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Reactive Chemical Species in Human Physiology
    4. 3. Origins of Enhanced Free Radical Production in Tumors
    5. 4. Active and Passive Drug-Delivery Systems
    6. 5. Redox Responsive Drug-Delivery Systems
    7. 6. Miscellaneous Systems
    8. 7. Conclusions
  18. Chapter 11: Polymeric micro- and nanoparticles for controlled and targeted drug delivery
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Polymeric Micro- and Nanoparticles for a Controlled Delivery of Active Substances
    4. 3. Formulation of Micro- and Nanopolymer Particles
    5. 4. The Most Widely Used Incorporation Techniques
    6. 5. Characteristics of Polymeric Micro- and Nanoparticles With an Encapsulated Vitamin as an Active Substance and Their Comparison
    7. 6. Conclusions
    8. Acknowledgments
  19. Chapter 12: Novel gels: implications for drug delivery
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Hydrogels
    4. 3. In situ Gel
    5. 4. Emulsion Gels
    6. 5. Microgel
    7. 6. Nanogels
    8. 7. Vesicular Gel
    9. 8. Future Prospects
  20. Chapter 13: Nanosuspension drug delivery system: preparation, characterization, postproduction processing, dosage form, and application
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Preparation of Liquid Nanosuspension DDS
    4. 3. Characterization of Nanosuspension DDS
    5. 4. Postproduction Processing
    6. 5. Dosage Form of Nanosuspension DDS
    7. 6. Application of Nanosuspension DDS
    8. 7. Summary and Outlook
    9. Acknowledgments
  21. Chapter 14: Polymer-based nanocarriers for therapeutic nucleic acids delivery
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Current Challenges and Barriers for Therapeutic Nucleic Acids Delivery
    4. 3. Advantages and Uniqueness of Polymer-Based Nanocarriers for Addressing Existing Challenges and Barriers
    5. 4. Recent Examples of Polymer-Based Nanocarriers for Therapeutic Nucleic-Acids Delivery
    6. 5. Other Considerations for Polymer-Based Nanocarriers for Therapeutic Nucleic Acids Delivery
    7. 6. Conclusions
    8. Acknowledgments
  22. Chapter 15: Multifunctional therapeutic hybrid nanocarriers for targeted and triggered drug delivery: recent trends and future prospects
    1. Abstract
    2. Abbreviations
    3. 1. Introduction
    4. 2. Metal Nanoparticles
    5. 3. Silica Nanoparticles
    6. 4. Polymeric Nanoparticles
    7. 5. Core/Shell Nanoparticles
    8. 6. Conclusion and Future Prospects
  23. Chapter 16: Lipid-based nanocarriers for ocular drug delivery
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Routes of Delivery (Thakur and Kashiv, 2011)
    4. 3. Major Physiological Barriers of the Eye to Topical Ocular Drug Delivery
    5. 4. Requisites of Controlled Ocular Delivery (Wilson, 2004)
    6. 5. Lipid-Based Nanocarriers as Topical Ocular Delivery Systems (Gan et al., 2013)
    7. 6. Conclusions
  24. Chapter 17: Nanoparticulate carrier(s): an emerging paradigm in new generation vaccine development
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Advantages of Nanoparticulate-based Vaccine Delivery
    4. 3. Generation of Immune Response
    5. 4. Design Aspects in the New Generation of Vaccine Development
    6. 5. Nanocarrier(s) Properties that Make Suitable Cargo for Vaccine Delivery
    7. 6. Nanoparticulate Carriers as a Versatile Platform for Vaccine Delivery
    8. 7. New Generation Vaccines
    9. 8. Conclusions
  25. Chapter 18: Pathogen-specific nucleic acid aptamers as targeting components of antibiotic and gene delivery systems
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. SELEX for Selection of Specific and High-Affinity Aptamers
    3. 2. Aptamers for Pathogenic Cells
    4. 3. Nanoparticle-Based Antimicrobial Gene Delivery
    5. 4. Functionalization of Nanocarriers
    6. 5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  26. Chapter 19: Multifunctional nanosized emulsions for theragnosis of life threatening diseases
    1. Abstract
    2. Abbreviations
    3. 1. Introduction
    4. 2. O/W-Type Nanosized Emulsions (NE) Generations
    5. 3. Future Perspectives
    6. 4. Conclusions
  27. Chapter 20: Therapeutic nanostructures for pulmonary drug delivery
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Nanoparticles
    4. 3. Pulmonary Drug Delivery
    5. 4. Drugs Suitable for Pulmonary Drug Delivery
    6. 5. Nanostructures for Drug Delivery to the Lungs
    7. 6. Pulmonary Delivery Devices
    8. 7. Deposition of Inhaled Particles in Respiratory Tract
    9. 8. Fate of Inhaled Particles
    10. 9. Evaluation of the Fate of Inhaled Particles
    11. 10. Conclusions
  28. Chapter 21: Nanostructures in transdermal drug delivery systems
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Skin Anatomy
    4. 3. Permeation Pathways Across Skin
    5. 4. Advantages of Transdermal Drug Delivery Compared to Other Routes of Administration
    6. 5. Advantages of Nanostructures in TDDS
    7. 6. Physicochemical Properties of Nanostructures Required for Good Permeation
    8. 7. Types of Nanostructures Used in TDDS
    9. 8. Limitations of Nanostructures in TDDS
    10. 9. Applications of Nanostructures in TDDS
    11. 10. Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  29. Chapter 22: Advancement in pulmonary drug delivery systems for treatment of tuberculosis
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Burden of Disease and Progress Toward Global Targets
    4. 3. Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis
    5. 4. Current Antitubercular Chemotherapy
    6. 5. Pulmonary Drug Delivery
    7. 6. Advanced Dry Powder Inhalers (DPI)
    8. 7. Carriers Used for Pulmonary Delivery of ATDs
    9. 8. Conclusions and Future Prospectives
    10. Acknowledgment
  30. Chapter 23: Nanosized devices as antibiotics and antifungals delivery: past, news, and outlook
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Liposomes
    4. 3. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN)
    5. 4. Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
    6. 5. Chemical Drug Delivery Systems
    7. 6. Conclusions and Future Outlooks
  31. Chapter 24: Drug delivery mediated by confined nanosystems: structure-activity relations and factors responsible for the efficacy of formulations
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Surfactant-Based Formulations; Structure-Activity Relations as Criteria for the Choice of Building Blocks
    4. 3. Cationic Surfactants as Agents for DNA Transfection
    5. 4. Binding/Release Properties of Self-Assembled Systems
    6. 5. Biomaterials for Hydrophilic Peptides
    7. 6. Penetration Through BBB
    8. 7. Conclusions
    9. Acknowledgment
  32. Chapter 25: Therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies: general aspects and challenges for drug delivery
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. General Introduction
    3. 2. Mabs Production
    4. 3. Antibody–Drug Conjugates
    5. 4. Nanotechnology’s Potential Impact on Mabs
    6. 5. Therapeutic Applications of Monoclonal Antibodies
    7. 6. Future Trends of Monoclonal Antibodies
  33. Chapter 26: Targeted drug delivery via chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Nanotechnology-Based Targeted Drug-Delivery Systems
    3. 2. Targeting Strategies in Drug Delivery
    4. 3. Magnetic Nanoparticles
    5. 4. Chitosan as a Surface Coating Material for Magnetic Nanoparticles
    6. 5. Synthesis Methods for Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
    7. 6. Magnetically Targeted Drug Delivery via Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
    8. 7. Cellular Internalization of Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
    9. 8. Drug Release From Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
    10. 9. Toxicity of Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
    11. 10. Administration Routes of Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
    12. 11. Concluding Remarks
  34. Chapter 27: Drug delivery: advancements and challenges
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Drug Delivery into the Brain
    4. 3. Oral Drug Delivery Systems
    5. 4. Targeted Drug Delivery
    6. 5. Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery
    7. 6. Modern Drug Delivery: Challenges
    8. 7. Conclusions
  35. Chapter 28: Stimuli-responsive liposome and control release drug
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Liposomes
    4. 3. Stimuli-Responsive Liposome
    5. 4. Conclusions
    6. Acknowledgments
  36. Chapter 29: Nanotechnology to enhance transdermal delivery of hydrophilic humectants for improved skin care: a model for therapeutic applications
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Basic Concepts
    3. 2. Transdermal Agents Delivery and Nanotechnology
    4. 3. Humectants for Improved Skin Care: A Model for Therapeutic Applications
    5. 4. Conclusions and Lessons From Humectants for Skin Care Modeling Therapeutic Applications of Nanotechnologies
  37. Chapter 30: Nanostructures for drug delivery: pharmacokinetic and toxicological aspects
    1. Abstract
    2. 1. Introduction
    3. 2. Nanoparticles and Drug Delivery
    4. 3. Main Applications
    5. 4. Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery Systems
    6. 5. Toxicological Effects of Nanoparticles
    7. 6. Determination of Toxicity
    8. 7. Toxicity
    9. 8. Conclusions
    10. Acknowledgments
  38. Index