C.G. Granqvist, Uppsala University Sweden
Thin films and nanostructured coatings are becoming of increasing importance for eco-efficient construction. This chapter discusses the underlying reasons why this is so and then introduces the major technologies. They are subdivided into those requiring vacuum or plasmas – with focus on evaporation and sputtering – and a range of other techniques. Nanoparticle-based coatings are discussed separately, with an emphasis on advanced gas deposition, deposition of carbon-based structures, and microbial fabrication. Large-scale deposition is treated in particular detail, and some views are given on future developments.