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13 TCP/IP

Since its inception in the 1970s, the TCP/IP protocol suite has evolved into the industry standard for data transfer protocols at the network and transport layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. In addition, the suite includes myriad other protocols that operate as low as the data link layer and as high as the application layer.

Operating systems tend to simplify the appearance of the network protocol stack to make it more comprehensible to the average user. On a Windows workstation, for example, you install Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) by selecting a single module called a protocol, but this process actually installs support for a whole family of protocols, of which TCP and IP ...

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