Sound Propagation Outdoors


In this chapter, the reader is introduced to the analysis of outdoor sound propagation, including:

  • various phenomena affecting the sound pressure level arriving at the receiver, such as:

    • o spherical divergence;

    • o atmospheric absorption;

    • o ground reflection;

    • o atmospheric wind and temperature gradients and turbulence;

    • o source height;

    • o absorption by foliage;

    • o shielding by barriers, houses and process equipment/industrial buildings;

  • commonly used methods of prediction, including the CONCAWE and ISO 9613-2 (1996) propagation models; and

  • uncertainty.

4.1 Introduction

Sound propagation outdoors is a complex process, with the sound pressure level produced at a receiver by a source, at a ...

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