Nonimaging Optics in Solar Energy

Book description


Nonimaging optics is a subdiscipline of optics whose development over the last 35–40 years was led by scientists from the University of Chicago and other cooperating individuals and institutions. The approach provides a formalism that allows the design of optical devices that approach the maximum physically attainable geometric concentration for a given set of optical tolerances. This means that it has the potential to revolutionize the design of solar concentrators. In this monograph, the basic practical applications of the techniques of nonimaging optics to solar energy collection and concentration are developed and explained. The formalism for designing a wide variety of concentrator types, such as the compound parabolic concentrator and its many embodiments and variations, is presented. Both advantages and limitations of the approach are reviewed. Practical and economic aspects of concentrator design for both thermal and photovoltaic applications are discussed as well. The whole range of concentrator applications from simple low-concentration nontracking designs to ultrahigh-concentration multistage configurations is covered.

Table of Contents: Introduction / CPCs / Practical Design of CPC Thermal Collectors / Practical Design of CPC PV Concentrators / Two-Stage Nonimaging Concentrators for Solar Thermal Applications / Two-Stage Nonimaging Concentrators for Solar PV Applications / Selected Demonstrations of Nonimaging Concentrator Performance / The Importance of Economic Factors in Effective Solar Concentrator Design / Ultrahigh Concentration / Bibliography

Table of contents

  1. Nonimaging Optics in Solar Energy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. Keywords
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Important Note
    5. Contents
    6. Chapter 1 Introduction
      1. 1.1 WHAT IS “NONIMAGING OPTICS?”
      2. 1.2 ADVANTAGES FOR SOLAR ENERGY CONCENTRATION
      3. 1.3 DEFINITION OF GEOMETRIC CONCENTRATION FACTOR
        1. 1.3.1 Concentration and the Thermodynamic Limit
      4. 1.4 THE ROLE OF CONCENTRATION IN SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION
    7. chapter 2 CPCs
      1. 2.1 BASIC GEOMETRY
      2. 2.2 “TRUNCATION” OF CPCs
      3. 2.3 THE “EDGE-RAY PRINCIPLE”
      4. 2.4 SOLUTIONS FOR NONFLAT ABSORBERS
      5. 2.5 THE “GAP-LOSS” PROBLEM
      6. 2.6 CPC SOLAR GEOMETRY
      7. 2.7 CPC DEPLOYMENT FLEXIBILITY
      8. 2.8 THE DIELECTRIC TOTALLY INTERNALLY REFLECTING CPC
      9. 2.9 SUMMARY OF CPC FEATURES
    8. Chapter 3 Practical Design of CPC Thermal Collectors
      1. 3.1 CPCs WITH EVACUATED ABSORBERS
        1. 3.1.1 The External Reflector CPC
          1. 3.1.1.1 Generic Model for Nonimaging Evacuated Solar Thermal Collectors
            1. Simple model for XCPC optical performance
            2. Concentration and thermal performance for evacuated CPCs
        2. 3.1.2 Comparison of Early and Recent XCPC Embodiments
        3. 3.1.3 The Integrated CPC
          1. 3.1.3.1 A “Manufacturable Design”
      2. 3.2 CPCs WITH NONEVACUATED ABSORBERS
        1. 3.2.1 Performance Model for Nonevacuated CPCs
    9. chapter 4 Practical Design of CPC PV Concentrators
      1. 4.1 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR PV APPLICATIONS
      2. 4.2 PERFORMANCE EFFECTS IN CPCs FOR PV APPLICATIONS (1/2)
      3. 4.2 PERFORMANCE EFFECTS IN CPCs FOR PV APPLICATIONS (2/2)
    10. chapter 5 Two-Stage Nonimaging Concentrators for Solar Thermal Applications
      1. 5.1 BASIC CONCEPTS
      2. 5.2 GEOMETRIC CONSIDERATIONS
      3. 5.3 CONCENTRATION, OPTICAL QUALITY, AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF TWO-STAGE DISH CONCENTRATORS
        1. 5.3.1 Effect of Slope Error and Operating Temperature
        2. 5.3.2 Effect of Focal Ratio
        3. 5.3.3 Off-Track Tolerances With and Without Secondaries
      4. 5.4 PERFORMANCE BENEFITS FOR SECONDARIES COMBINED WITH SPHERICAL MIRRORS
      5. 5.5 SUMMARY OF ADVANTAGES OF TWO-STAGE NONIMAGING CONFIGURATIONS
      6. 5.6 COMPARISON OF VARIOUS NONIMAGING SECONDARY CONCENTRATOR DESIGNS
        1. 5.6.1 CPCs and CECs
        2. 5.6.2 Flowline or Trumpet Concentrators
        3. 5.6.3 TERCs
      7. 5.7 SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
      8. 5.8 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND AN OPERATIONAL TEST
        1. 5.8.1 The Importance of Maintaining the Optical Performance of the Primary
    11. chapter 6 Two-Stage Nonimaging Concentrators for Solar PV Applications
      1. 6.1 MULTIELEMENT CONCENTRATOR ARRAYS
        1. 6.1.1 Geometric Considerations
        2. 6.1.2 Secondary Designs
      2. 6.2 SINGLE LARGE-SCALE PV CONCENTRATORS USED WITH A MULTICELL ARRAY
    12. chapter 7 Selected Demonstrations of Nonimaging Concentrator Performance
      1. 7.1 THE BREADSPRINGS INDIAN SCHOOL NONEVACUATED CPC PROJECT
      2. 7.2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO EVACUATED XCPC ARRAY (1/2)
      3. 7.2 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO EVACUATED XCPC ARRAY (2/2)
      4. 7.3 THE SACRAMENTO ICPC SOLAR COOLING PROJECT
    13. chapter 8 The Importance of Economic Factors in Effective Solar Concentrator Design
      1. 8.1 A RATIONAL MODEL FOR COST PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION
        1. 8.1.1 The Model
        2. 8.1.2 Conclusions
      2. 8.2 THE ECONOMICS OF SOLAR COOLING SYSTEMS
        1. 8.2.1 Introduction
        2. 8.2.2 A Simple Model
        3. 8.2.3 Discussion
    14. chapter 9 Ultrahigh Concentrations
      1. 9.1 CONCENTRATION LIMITS FOR NONIMAGING TERMINAL CONCENTRATORS IN CENTRAL RECEIVER APPLICATIONS
        1. 9.1.1 Introduction
        2. 9.1.2 Limits to Central Receiver Concentration
          1. 9.1.2.1 Surround Field Geometry
          2. 9.1.2.2 Field Size
          3. 9.1.2.3 Nonsurround Field Designs
        3. 9.1.3 Summary and Conclusions
        4. 9.1.4 Recommendations
      2. 9.2 SOME EXOTIC APPLICATIONS FOR ULTRAHIGH SOLAR FLUXES
        1. 9.2.1 Using Highly Concentrated Sunlight in Space
        2. 9.2.2 Applications in the Lunar Environment
        3. 9.2.3 Solar Thermal Propulsion in Space
    15. Bibliography and References (1/2)
    16. Bibliography and References (2/2)
    17. Author Biography

Product information

  • Title: Nonimaging Optics in Solar Energy
  • Author(s): Joseph O'Gallagher
  • Release date: September 2008
  • Publisher(s): Morgan & Claypool Publishers
  • ISBN: 9781598293319