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Numerical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters

Book Description

Numerical Modelling of Wave Energy Converters: State-of-the Art Techniques for Single WEC and Converter Arrays presents all the information and techniques required for the numerical modelling of a wave energy converter together with a comparative review of the different available techniques. The authors provide clear details on the subject and guidance on its use for WEC design, covering topics such as boundary element methods, frequency domain models, spectral domain models, time domain models, non linear potential flow models, CFD models, semi analytical models, phase resolving wave propagation models, phase averaging wave propagation models, parametric design and control optimization, mean annual energy yield, hydrodynamic loads assessment, and environmental impact assessment.

Each chapter starts by defining the fundamental principles underlying the numerical modelling technique and finishes with a discussion of the technique’s limitations and a summary of the main points in the chapter. The contents of the chapters are not limited to a description of the mathematics, but also include details and discussion of the current available tools, examples available in the literature, and verification, validation, and computational requirements. In this way, the key points of each modelling technique can be identified without having to get deeply involved in the mathematical representation that is at the core of each chapter.

The book is separated into four parts. The first two parts deal with modelling single wave energy converters; the third part considers the modelling of arrays; and the final part looks at the application of the different modelling techniques to the four most common uses of numerical models. It is ideal for graduate engineers and scientists interested in numerical modelling of wave energy converters, and decision-makers who must review different modelling techniques and assess their suitability and output.

  • Consolidates in one volume information and techniques for the numerical modelling of wave energy converters and converter arrays, which has, up until now, been spread around multiple academic journals and conference proceedings making it difficult to access
  • Presents a comparative review of the different numerical modelling techniques applied to wave energy converters, discussing their limitations, current available tools, examples, and verification, validation, and computational requirements
  • Includes practical examples and simulations available for download at the book’s companion website
  • Identifies key points of each modelling technique without getting deeply involved in the mathematical representation

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributors
  6. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 The Challenge of Wave Energy
    3. 1.2 A Short History of the Numerical Modelling of WECs
    4. 1.3 Current Challenges and Future Developments
    5. 1.4 Why This Book
    6. 1.5 How to Use This Book
    7. 1.6 Acknowledgements
  7. I: Wave Energy Converter Modelling Techniques Based on Linear Hydrodynamic Theory
    1. Chapter 2: Frequency-Domain Models
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Introduction and Fundamental Principles
      3. 2.2 Phenomenological Discussion
      4. 2.3 Potential Flow Theory
      5. 2.4 Equation of Motion: Single Degree-of-Freedom WEC
      6. 2.5 Equation of Motion: Multiple Degree-of-Freedom WEC
      7. 2.6 OWCs
      8. 2.7 Limitations
      9. 2.8 Summary
    2. Chapter 3: Time-Domain Models
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction and Fundamental Principles
      3. 3.2 The Cummins Equation for Modelling WECs
      4. 3.3 Wave Excitation Forces
      5. 3.4 The RIRF
      6. 3.5 Convolution of the Radiation Forces
      7. 3.6 Hydrostatic Forces
      8. 3.7 Solution of the Cummins Equation
      9. 3.8 Case-Study: A Single-Body Heaving WEC
      10. 3.9 The Influence of Simulation Duration
      11. 3.10 Limitations
      12. 3.11 Summary
    3. Chapter 4: Spectral-Domain Models
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Introduction and Fundamental Principles
      3. 4.2 Formulation of the Spectral-Domain Model
      4. 4.3 Solving a Spectral-Domain Model
      5. 4.4 Examples of Spectral-Domain Modelling
      6. 4.5 Further Developments
      7. 4.6 Limitations
      8. 4.7 Summary
  8. II: Other Wave Energy Converter Modelling Techniques
    1. Chapter 5: Nonlinear Potential Flow Models
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Introduction and Fundamental Principles
      3. 5.2 Formulation of the Fully Nonlinear Potential Flow Model
      4. 5.3 Solution Methods For Fully Nonlinear Potential Flow Problems
      5. 5.4 Calculating the WEC Response
      6. 5.5 Limitations
      7. 5.6 Summary
    2. Chapter 6: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Models
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Introduction and Fundamental Principles
      3. 6.2 Incompressible CFD Models
      4. 6.3 Compressible Two-Phase CFD Models
      5. 6.4 Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamic Models
      6. 6.5 Limitations
      7. 6.6 Future Developments
      8. 6.7 Summary
    3. Chapter 7: Identifying Models Using Recorded Data
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Introduction and Fundamental Principles
      3. 7.2 Data Generation
      4. 7.3 Models for System Identification
      5. 7.4 Identification Algorithms
      6. 7.5 Case Studies
      7. 7.6 Limitations
      8. 7.7 Summary
  9. III: Wave Energy Converter Array Modelling Techniques
    1. Chapter 8: Conventional Multiple Degree-of-Freedom Array Models
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction and Fundamental Principles
      3. 8.2 Modelling Based on Linear Potential Flow
      4. 8.3 Modelling Based on Other Techniques
      5. 8.4 Limitations
      6. 8.5 Summary
    2. Chapter 9: Semi-analytical Array Models
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 General Formulation
      4. 9.3 Point Absorber Method
      5. 9.4 Plane Wave Method
      6. 9.5 Multiple Scattering Method
      7. 9.6 Direct Matrix Method
      8. 9.7 Capabilities and Limitations
      9. 9.8 Summary
    3. Chapter 10: Phase-Resolving Wave Propagation Array Models
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Implementation of the WEC Simulation in the Wave Propagation Model MILDwave
      4. 10.3 Applications of the Numerical Techniques Using MILDwave
      5. 10.4 Limitations
      6. 10.5 Summary
    4. Chapter 11: Phase-Averaging Wave Propagation Array Models
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction and Fundamental Principles
      3. 11.2 Supragrid Models of WEC Arrays
      4. 11.3 Subgrid Models of WEC Arrays
      5. 11.4 Limitations
      6. 11.5 Summary
  10. IV: Applications for Wave Energy Converter Models
    1. Chapter 12: Control Optimisation and Parametric Design
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Control of WECs
      4. 12.3 Optimization of WECs and WEC Arrays
    2. Chapter 13: Determining Mean Annual Energy Production
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Introduction and Appropriate Modelling Techniques
      3. 13.2 Representation of the Wave Climate
      4. 13.3 Representation of Power Performance
      5. 13.4 Estimation of the MAEP
      6. 13.5 Limitations and Constraints
      7. 13.6 Summary
    3. Chapter 14: Determining Structural and Hydrodynamic Loads
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Design Principles
      4. 14.3 Site Characterization
      5. 14.4 Device Considerations
      6. 14.5 Design Criteria
      7. 14.6 Structural Assessment
      8. 14.7 Summary
    4. Chapter 15: Environmental Impact Assessment
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Ecological Processes
      4. 15.3 Modelling Approach
      5. 15.4 Limitations
      6. 15.5 Summary
  11. Index