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Nutrition Support by Brenda O'Day

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Chapter 3

Parenteral Nutrition

Prior to 1968, patients with nonfunctioning gastrointestinal (GI) tracts who were unable to absorb nutrients died of malnutrition. Parenteral nutrition (PN) was first introduced in canine subjects, then tried experimentally in an infant with terminal bowel failure. Success followed the survival of the infant and thus was launched a new era in nutrition support (Mueller 2012; Skipper 2012). Access devices required for PN are considered an invasive intervention due to the risks of infection and embolic events. Solutions provided to patients include macronutrients, micronutrients, electrolytes, medications, and fluids for hydration. Both short-term and long-term PN can cause complications, some with high morbidity, ...

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