6.4. The Subsea Pipeline Riser
The riser is a general term of pipeline that denotes equipment for the landing or putting out of subsea pipeline into the ocean and climbing offshore oil production platforms and pipeline segments for loading and unloading an oil platform in some island-style or floating quays. The riser system is a part of the subsea pipeline system, including riser supports, pipeline accessories, and a corrosion-protection system assembled as a part of it. The riser is an important link for a pipeline project and the weak part of the project. Furthermore, it will cause lots of special problems due to poor environmental conditions when affected by the unusual marine loads.
6.4.1. Main Forms of Subsea Pipeline Risers
According to applications ...