27. The answer is a.

Since the adoption of PSA testing more than 20 years ago, PSA screening for prostate cancer remains controversial. Not all men with prostate cancer secrete enough PSA to raise the level. Digital rectal exam is the most commonly performed screening exam. PSA greater than 4 ng/ml is the threshold for performing biopsies. CNPP, Pages 1850–1851.

28. The answer is a.

The most widely used screening programs have been for the early detection of breast and cervical cancer. Prior to screening, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death among women. CNPP, Page 100.

29. The answer is b.

The specificity of a test is its ability to identify those individuals who do not have cancer. The sensitivity ...

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