A. SCIENTIFIC BASIS

Carcinogenesis

1. The two most commonly recognized models of cancer development are:

  1. Cancer stem cell model and clonal model
  2. Inflammation theory and plasticity model of cancer stem cells
  3. Clonal model and inflammation theory
  4. Cancer stem cell model and the genetic predisposition model

2. Mutations are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) changes caused by a variety of reasons. Mutations caused by disease occur in:

  1. Germline and stem cells
  2. Stem cells and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  3. Somatic and germline cells
  4. Transfer RNA

3. Mutations can occur in normal genes that direct cell growth. These genes can be activated into:

  1. Cancer-causing mutations
  2. Genes such as ras that promote invasion of cancer cells
  3. Cancer-causing genes called oncogenes ...

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