138. The answer is d.

The four widely accepted fundamental ethical principles that guide medical decision-making are autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice. CNPP, Pages 141–144.

139. The correct answer is a.

Informed consent is a central focus of autonomy, especially when it pertains to genetic information. CNPP, Pages 141–143.

140. The answer is c.

Beneficence is the healthcare provider’s opportunity to provide an opportunity for benefit. In this case, the patient would be advised to have a more extensive procedure. CNPP, Pages 141–143.

141. The answer is b.

Justice is synonymous with equity or fairness and is achieved through a balance of risks versus benefits. CNPP, Pages 141–143.


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