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Open Source Archaeology

Book Description

Open Source Archaeology: Ethics and Practice' brings together authors and researchers in the field of open-source archaeology, defined as encompassing the ethical imperative for open public access to the results of publicly-funded research; practical solutions to open-data projects; open-source software applications in archaeology; public information sharing projects in archaeology; open-GIS; and the open-context system of data management and sharing. This edited volume is designed to discuss important issues around open access to data and software in academic and commercial archaeology, as well as to summarise both the current state of theoretical engagement, and technological development in the field of open-archaeology.

Ben Edwards
Ben Edwards was trained in archaeology at the University of Durham, achieving his BA, MA and PhD. His first commercial work was for Archaeological Services, Durham University, before moving on to become a Lecturer in Archaeological Practice at the University of Liverpool, where he taught for three years. During this time Ben began his project management work, undertaking both commercial and research excavations, and survey projects. His teaching (archaeological practice and heritage management) proved to be an excellent basis from which to develop his professional expertise.
Ben now lectures at Manchester Metropolitan University in Archaeology and Heritage. He currently researches open source software and hardware for use in the field, and advanced 3D surveying techniques.

Andrew Wilson
Andrew Wilson was trained in archaeology at the University of Liverpool. Upon achieving his BA at the University, Andrew moved south to study Computer Applied Archaeology at the University of Southampton, where he was awarded an MSc. Andrew returned to the University of Liverpool where he has recently completed a PhD. During this time Andrew coordinated a number of projects both in the UK and Middle East, specialising in advanced surveying techniques of archaeological remains.
Working in the the School of Computer Science, Bangor University Andrew has developed his keen interest in Open data policies and ethics. This interest was the starting point for this volume.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. Acknowledgements
  6. 1 Open Archaeology: Definitions, Challenges and Context
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 ‘Open Source’ Archaeology and ‘Open’ Archaeology
    3. 1.3 Open Source Archaeology
    4. 1.4 Open Archaeology
    5. 1.5 The Public Context of Open Access
    6. 1.6 Open Ethics
    7. 1.7 Outline of the Volume
    8. Bibliography
  7. 2 Digital Haystacks: Open Data and the Transformation of Archaeological Knowledge
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Openness and Access
    3. 2.3 Openness and Reuse
    4. 2.4 Approaches to Open Data
    5. 2.5 From Data to Knowledge?
    6. 2.6 From Knowledge to Data?
    7. 2.7 Putting the ‘Capta’ Back into Data?
    8. 2.8 Transforming Knowledge?
    9. 2.9 Open Data is for Sharing
    10. Bibliography
  8. 3 Here Today, Gone Tomorrow: Open Access, Open Data and Digital Preservation
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Sharing Data: The ‘Traditional’ Treatment of Archaeological Data
    3. 3.3 Accessing Data: The Case of the Archaeology Data Service
    4. 3.4 Conclusion
    5. Bibliography
  9. 4 Community-Driven Approaches to Open Source Archaeological Imaging
    1. 4.1 Introduction
      1. 4.1.1 Using Case Studies
    2. 4.2 Technological Innovation: New Development Models
    3. 4.3 Introducing the Methodology
      1. 4.3.1 Reflectance Transformation Imaging
      2. 4.3.2 Photogrammetry
      3. 4.3.3 Assessing the Benefits of Open Source Imaging Methodologies
    4. 4.4 Community Methodologies and Technological Uptake
      1. 4.4.1 Development Model Alternatives
      2. 4.4.2 Ensuring Meaningful Software Access
    5. 4.5 Case Study One: Basing House Community, Archaeology and Technology Project
      1. 4.5.1 Skills Sharing
      2. 4.5.2 Experimental Atmosphere
      3. 4.5.3 Basing House Conclusions
    6. 4.6 Case Study Two: Re-Reading the British Memorial
      1. 4.6.1 Adaptive Methodologies
      2. 4.6.2 Decentralised Approach
      3. 4.6.3 Project Sustainability
      4. 4.6.4 Recognising Skills
      5. 4.6.5 Re-Reading the British Memorial Project Conclusions
    7. 4.7 Conclusion
    8. Bibliography
  10. 5 Open Source GIS Geospatial Software for Archaeology: Towards its Integration into Everyday Archaeological Practice
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 What is Open Source Software?
    3. 5.3 Why Use Open Source GIS?
    4. 5.4 Problems with Open Source GIS
    5. 5.5 Common Misconceptions Regarding Commercial and Open-Source Software
    6. 5.6 Which Open-Source Desktop GIS is more Convenient?
      1. 5.6.1 GRASS (Geographic Resources Analysis Support System) GIS
      2. 5.6.2 QGIS (Formerly Known as Quantum GIS)
      3. 5.6.3 SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses) GIS
      4. 5.6.4 gvSIG (Generalitat Valenciana Sistema d’Informació Geogràfica)
      5. 5.6.5 Other Open Source Geospatial Software
    7. 5.7 Open Geospatial Data?
    8. 5.8 Conclusions
    9. Bibliography
  11. 6 What was Published is as Important as How it was Published
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Open Access and Global Society
    3. 6.3 Open Access, Archaeology and Ethics
    4. 6.4 Conclusions
    5. 6.5 The Future
    6. Bibliography
  12. 7 Free and Open Source Software in Commercial and Academic Archaeology
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Selected Aspects of F/OSS
      1. 7.2.1 Open Source Economics
      2. 7.2.2 Social Dynamics of F/OSS
    3. 7.3 F/OSS in Research
      1. 7.3.1 Publish (Your Source Code) or Perish!
      2. 7.3.2 Reproducible Research
      3. 7.3.3 Data-Centric Research
    4. 7.4 Case Studies
      1. 7.4.1 Oxford Archaeology Digital: F/OSS Migration in the Workplace
      2. 7.4.2 gvSIG and gvSIG CE: The Role of Social Capital in F/OSS
      3. 7.4.3 Survey Tools: F/OSS for Field Archaeology
    5. 7.5 Conclusions
    6. Bibliography
  13. 8 Building the Bazaar: Enhancing Archaeological Field Recording Through an Open Source Approach
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 FAIMS: Overview and History of the Project
    3. 8.3 The State of Play: Sharing in the World of Archaeology
      1. 8.3.1 Archaeologists and Open Source Software
      2. 8.3.2 The Ethos of Sharing in the Archaeological Community
      3. 8.3.3 Creating and Sharing Repurposable Digital Data
    4. 8.4 Open Source Beyond Software
      1. 8.4.1 Free-as-in-beer and Free-as in Speech: Open Source Paradigms for Scholarship
      2. 8.4.2 The GitHub Revolution
    5. 8.5 New Applications of Open Source Techniques
      1. 8.5.1 Open Source Approaches to the Development of Recording Systems
      2. 8.5.2 Improving Sustainability through Reuse and Redeployment
      3. 8.5.3 Improving Archaeological Practice through Dataset Interoperability
    6. 8.6 Conclusion
    7. Bibliography
  14. 9 Archaeological Experiences with Free and Open Source Geographic Information Systems and Geospatial Freeware: Implementation and Usage Examples in the Compliance, Education, and Research Sectors
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 What Geographic Information Systems and Free and Open Source Software are not
    3. 9.3 What does Open Source mean in GIS
      1. 9.3.1 Pros and Cons
      2. 9.3.2 Software Application Summaries
    4. 9.4 Use Case One: FOSS GIS with Heritage Management Data
    5. 9.5 Use Case Two: FOSS GIS and Archival Management at the VAARNG Curation Facility
    6. 9.6 Use Case Three: FOSS GIS in the University
      1. 9.6.1 GIS Classes
      2. 9.6.2 Introductory and Advanced Archaeology Classes
      3. 9.6.3 Archaeological Field Schools and Other Research
    7. 9.7 Conclusion
    8. Bibliography
  15. List of Figures
  16. List of Tables
  17. Index