The geometric functions are used by the programmers to perform common computation on vectors, for example, cross or dot products, normalizing a vector, and length of a vector. To recap a little about vector cross and dot products, remember that a vector in the mathematical sense represents a quantity that has both direction and magnitude, and these vectors are used extensively in computer graphics.

Quite often, we need to compute the distance (in degrees or radians) between two vectors and to do this, we need to compute the dot product, which is defined as:

It follows that if *a* is perpendicular to *b* then it must be that ...

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