Mass -Storage Structure
The file system can be viewed logically as consisting of three parts. In Chapter 10, we examined the user and programmer interface to the file system. In Chapter 11, we described the internal data structures and algorithms used by the operating system to implement this interface. In this chapter, we discuss the lowest level of the file system: the secondary and tertiary storage structures. We first describe the physical structure of magenetic disks and magnetic tapes. We then describe disk-scheduling algorithms, which schedule the order of disk I/Os to improve performance. Next, we discuss disk formatting and management of boot blocks, damaged blocks, and swap space. We then examine secondary storage structure, covering disk reliability and stable-storage implementation. We conclude with a brief description of tertiary storage devices and the problems that arise when an operating system uses tertiary storage.
• To describe the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage devices and its effects on the uses of the devices.
• To explain the performance characteristics of mass-storage devices.
• To discuss operating-system ...

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