Chapter 1Sources of Energy and Technologies

1.1 Energy Uses in Different Countries

As demand to meet social and economic development and improve human welfare and health is increasing, the demand for clean energy and associated services is also increasing. All societies require energy to meet basic human needs, for example, lighting, cooking, living comfort, mobility and communication also to run industries for various productive processes. Since around 1850, global use of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) has been the most dominant source of energy supply, leading to a rapid growth in CO2 emissions. The per capita energy consumption which was about 200 W nearly 100 years ago has increased to more than 2000 W per capita now. The energy consumption has almost doubled during last 30 years. Globally, energy consumption grew most quickly in the transport and service sectors, because of rising passenger travel and freight transport and a rapid expansion in the service economy. In 2004, about 77.8% of total energy consumption was through fossil fuels, only 5.4% was nuclear and the rest 16.5% was from renewable resources which was mainly hydroelectric.

The energy consumption in the world is mainly from following six primary sources. These are (i) fossil fuels, ii) nuclear, iii) hydro, iv) wind, v) solar and vi) biomass.

According to Renewables 2010 Global Status Report, the renewable energy share of total energy consumption in 2008 was 19%, as shown in Fig. 1.1. Of this 19%, approximately ...

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