• Labor classifications in lean systems, 232233

  • Labor climate, 529

  • Labor productivity, 18

  • Labor utilization, large inventories and, 331

  • Laplace decision rule, 38

  • Large inventories, pressures of, 330331

  • Latest finish time (LF), 252

  • Latest start time (LS), 252

  • Layout, 52, 53, 5758

  • Lead time, 10, 192, 460461

  • Lean systems, 211242, 213, 341342

    • benefits and issues in, 232233

    • continuous improvement and, 213215, 215f

    • equations, 234

    • Kanban, 224227

    • line-flow layouts, 222224

    • process considerations, 216221, 233

    • supply chain considerations, 215216

    • Toyota Production System (TPS), 221222

    • value stream mapping (VSM), 227231

  • Learning curve analysis, 6970

  • Learning curves, 70, 70f

  • Level strategy, 392, 396398, 398f

  • Leveling resources, 265

  • Life cycle ...

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