Index

(P indicates Problem)

Airy pattern, 68

Albedo, 29(P1.4)

Amplifier

integrating, 88-91

laser, 133

-limited NEP, 87, 94

optical, 133

transimpedance, 84-86

Antenna theorem, 128

Atmospheric attenuation, 173

Atmospheric turbulence, 147,

173

Audio laser system, 174(P7.3)

Avalanche photodiode, 109

B

Background-limited NEP, 87,

94

Beam compressor, 143

Beamwidth

Gaussian, 69

laser, 66

uniform circular, 68

BER (Bit error rate), 152-159

Blackbody

defined, 13

radiation, 1-16

Boltzmann

constant, 21

law, 2

Bose-Einstein factor, 9

BER, 152-159

sensitivity, defined, 155

with optical amplifier, 158

Compact disk (CD), 72(P3.4)

Confocal cavity, 45

Correlated double sampling, 90,

190

D

D (detectivity), 92

D*

(specific detectivity), 92-93

Dark current, 100

Detection probability, p^, 162-

166

Detectivity, D, 92

specific, D*, 92-93

Diffuse reflector, 17-18

Effective input noise current, 91

Einstein

radiation theory, 33

A,B

coefficients, 33-35

Electromagnetic mode, see

Mode

Electron

charge, 21

mass,

53

wavelength, 49, 72(P3.1)

Electron volts, 21

Electron wave function, 49, 51

Carbon dioxide laser, 45

Carson's theorem, 76

Coherent

detection, 123

radiation, 1

Communications, 151-161

//#,

19-20,145

Fabry-Perot resonator, 41-43

GaAs,

46(P2.2)

False-alarm probability,

p.-^

162-166

Far field, 56-71

195

196 Index

Fermi-Dirac statistics, 39-40

FET (fie Id-effect transistor)

equivalent circuit, 85

noise, 85

Flickeif7//) noise, 86

Fourier transform, 67,90

Fraunhofer transform, 66-67

Frequency response

phot(x:onductor, 104

semiconductor photodicxle,

107

vacuum photodiode, 99

Gain

avalanche photodiode. 111,

112

laser amplifier, 133

optical amplifier, 133

photoconductive, 104

semiconductor laser, 53-60

threshold, laser, 43

Gaussian

lineshape, 38

noise current distribution, 77

H

Headlamps, efficiency,

31

(PI.14)

Heat conductance, radiative, 30(P1.7)

Helium-neon laser, 45

Heter(xlyne detection, 123

Illuminance, 27

Image orthicon, 178

Image tubes

orthicon, 178

vidicon, 180

Induced emission, 33-35

Untrusion alarm, 174(P7.1)

Inversion factor,/;, 134,140

Irradiance, 11

J

Johnson noise, 79-83

Lambertian scatterer, 18

Laser

amplifier, 133

beamwidth, 66

carbon dioxide, 45

gain coefficient, 39, 53

helium-neon, 45

molecular gas, 47(P2.3)

semiconductor, 48-66

supermarket, 32(Pl.l6)

Lineshape

function, 37

Gaussian, 38

Lorentyian, 38

pressure-broadened, 38

Lorent/ian lineshape, 38

Lumen, 27

Luminosity factor, 27-28

Lunar constant, 18

Lux, 27

M

Maser, 41

Medical thermography, 30(P1.9-1.11),

4.1,4.2

Mersenne telescope, 143

Mixing

efficiency, 128

theorem, 129

Mode

cavity, 2-9

diffraction-limited, 131, 132

electromagnetic,

2.9,131

energy, 4-5

semiconductor laser, 64

spatial, 131,132

MTF (Modulation transfer

function), 177

N

Near-field, 56-71

N££ (noise equiv. electron count), 89

CCD array, 190

diode array, 186

Index

197

NEE, continued

image orthicon, 179

vidicon, 183

NE.P

(noise equivalent power)

amplifier limited, 87, 94

background limited, 87, 94

heterodyne, 126

signal limited, 88, 94

NE0 (noise equivalent photon

count), 89

Noise

amplified spontaneous

emission (ASE), 134

factor, f, avalanche photo-

diode, 114-118; r, photo-

multiplier, 102

generation-recombination,

g-r,

104

Johnson, 79-83

SxN,NxN,138

shot, 74, 76-77

spontaneous emission, 133

temperature, T^, 85

thermal, 79-83

Numerical aperture, 19-20

QA product, 69,132,143,146

Optical amplification, 130-140

communications, 158

Photodiode

semiconductor, 103

vacuum, 98

Photometric, 27

Photomultiplier, 101

Photon

counting, 102,152

defined, 8-9

Photon radiance, 23

Photovoltaic mode, 106

Planck

constant, 21

law, 2-9

Planets, temperature, 29(P1.6)

Poisson statistics, 75

Pressure-broadened lineshape,

38

Quantum efficiency

defined, 75

semiconductor, 103

vacuum photodiode, 98-99

5^(responsivity), 91

RA product, 93,109

Radar, 161-173

cross section, a, 161-162

precision, 167-170

resolution, 167-170

speed detector, 176(P7.7)

with APD, 172

Radiance, 13

Radiative heat conductance, PI.7

Rangefinder, 175(P7.6)

Rayleigh fadings 166

Responsivity, 91

Retroreflector, 162, 175(P7.4)

Richard son-Dushman equation,

100

Rician statistics, 160,164-165

R.^, (effective input resistance),

"33

Ruby laser, 44

Secondary emission ratio,

5,

101

Semiconductor laser

buried heterostructure, 62

gain coefficient, 53-60

homojunction, 60

heterojunction, 61

modes, 64

state density, 48-53

stripe, 62

threshold, 59

198 Index

Semiconductor laser, continued

vertical cavity, 65

Sensitivity, communications,

defined, 155

Shot noise

defined, 74

formula 76-77

Siegman, antenna theorem, 128

Signal dependent noise

communications, 156

radar, 170

Signal-to-noise voltage, 86, 93

Silicon target vidicon, 181

Solar constant, 15-16

Specific detectivity, /

>*,

^2-^3

Spectral irradiance, ll)-ll

Spectral radiance

calculation, 25

defined, 13

Spontaneous emission, 33-35

Spontaneous omission time, 35

Stefan-Bolt/mann law, 14-16

Stimulated emission, 33-35

Supermarket laser, 32(P1.16)

Thermal detector, 73, 97

Thermal energy, 3

Thermal noise, 79-83

Thermography, 30(P1.9-1.11), 95(P4.1,

4.2)

Three-level maser, 43

/ Y (Noise temperature), 85

Transit time

photcKonductor, 103

semiconductor photodi(xle,

106

vacuum photodiode, MM-100

U

Ultraviolet catastrophe, 4

Units,

21

Vacuum photodiode, 98

Vidicon, 180

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