Oracle 11g R1/R2 Real Application Clusters Essentials

Book description

In this book you’ll find a practical tutorial on configuring, installing, and designing Oracle 11g Real Application Clusters. Packed with real-world examples and troubleshooting tips, it aims to make the complex as simple as possible.

  • Understand sophisticated components that make up your Oracle RAC environment such as the role of High Availability, the RAC architecture required, the RAC installation and upgrade process, and much more!
  • Get hold of new Oracle RAC components such as the new features of Automatic Storage Management (ASM), performance tuning, and troubleshooting.
  • Packed with practical, real-world examples, expert tips and troubleshooting advice on how to administer a complex Oracle 11g RAC environment.
  • Bonus Oracle 11g RAC R2 information included with this book and e-book
  • This book is the updated release of our previous Oracle 11g R1/R2 Real Application Clusters Handbook. If you already own a copy of that Handbook, there is no need to upgrade to this book.

In Detail

Oracle RAC or Real Application Clusters is a grid computing solution that allows multiple nodes (servers) in a clustered system to mount and open a single database that resides on shared disk storage. Should a single system (node) fail, the database service will still be available on the remaining nodes. Oracle RAC is an integral part of the Oracle database setup. You have one database with multiple users accessing it, in real time. This book will enable DBAs to get their finger on the pulse of the Oracle 11g RAC environment quickly and easily.

This book will cover all areas of the Oracle RAC environment and is indispensable if you are an Oracle DBA who is charged with configuring and implementing Oracle11g R1, with bonus R2 information included. This book presents a complete method for the configuration, installation, and design of Oracle 11g RAC, ultimately enabling rapid administration of Oracle 11g RAC environments.

This practical handbook documents how to administer a complex Oracle 11g RAC environment. Packed with real world examples, expert tips and troubleshooting advice, the book begins by introducing the concept of Oracle RAC and High Availability. It then dives deep into the world of RAC configuration, installation and design, enabling you to support complex RAC environments for real world deployments. Chapters cover Oracle RAC and High Availability, Oracle 11g RAC Architecture, Oracle 11g RAC Installation, Automatic Storage Management, Troubleshooting, Workload Management and much more.

By following the practical examples in this book, you will learn every concept of the RAC environment and how to successfully support complex Oracle 11g R1 and R2 RAC environments for various deployments within real world situations.

This book is the updated release of our previous Oracle 11g R1/R2 Real Application Clusters Handbook. If you already own a copy of that Handbook, there is no need to upgrade to this book

Table of contents

  1. Oracle 11g R1/R2 Real Application Clusters Essentials
    1. Oracle 11g R1/R2 Real Application Clusters Essentials
    2. Credits
    3. About the Authors
    4. About the Reviewers
      1. Support files, eBooks, discount offers and more
      2. Why Subscribe?
      3. Free Access for Packt account holders
      4. Instant Updates on New Packt Books
    6. Preface
      1. What this book covers
      2. What you need for this book
      3. Who this book is for
      4. Conventions
      5. Reader feedback
      6. Customer support
      7. Downloading the example code for this book
        1. Errata
        2. Piracy
        3. Questions
    7. 1. High Availability
      1. High availability concepts
        1. Planned versus unplanned downtime
        2. Service Level Agreements for high availability
        3. High availability interpretations
        4. Recovery time and high availability
        5. System design for high availability
        6. Business Continuity and high availability
          1. Disaster Recovery
          2. Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery guidelines
      2. Fault-tolerant systems and high availability
        1. Requirements for implementing fault tolerance
        2. Fault tolerance and replication
      3. High availability solutions for Oracle
        1. Oracle Data Guard
        2. Oracle Streams
        3. Oracle Application Server Clustering
        4. High availability: Oracle 11g R1 Real Application Clusters (RAC)
        5. High availability: Oracle 11g R2 Real Application Clusters (RAC)
      4. Summary
    8. 2. Oracle 11g RAC Architecture
      1. Oracle 11g RAC architecture
        1. Certification matrix for Oracle 11g RAC architecture
      2. Hardware architecture for Oracle 11g RAC
        1. Server configurations for Oracle 11g RAC
        2. CPU processors
          1. Choosing between 32-bit and 64-bit CPU architectures
          2. Dual core and multicore processors
      3. Network architecture for Oracle 11g RAC
        1. The private network and the Oracle 11g RAC interconnect
          1. Choices for private interconnect and 11g RAC
            1. Ethernet choices for 11g RAC interconnect
            2. Alternatives to Gigabit Ethernet for the interconnect (Infiniband)
            3. Interconnect choices for 11g RAC—how to decide?
        2. Redundancy for Ethernet interconnects with 11g RAC
          1. Network bonding (NIC teaming)
      4. Storage architecture for Oracle 11g RAC
        1. RAID configurations for Oracle 11g RAC
          1. RAID 0 (striping)
          2. RAID 1 (mirroring)
          3. RAID 5 (striped with parity)
          4. RAID 10 (striped mirrors)
            1. Differences between RAID 10 and RAID 0+1
        2. Third-party RAID implementations
          1. IBM AIX LPAR disk volume management for RAID
          2. Linux volume management for RAID configuration
      5. Storage protocols for RAC
        1. SCSI
        2. Fibre Channel
          1. Point-to-Point (FC-P2P)
          2. Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)
          3. Fibre Channel Switched Fabric (FC-SW)
        3. Which Fibre Channel topology is best?
            1. Fibre Channel Ports
              1. Fibre Channel Generic Node Ports
        4. iSCSI
        5. Which storage protocol is best for RAC?
          1. Asynchronous I/O versus Direct I/O for Oracle 11g RAC
      6. Oracle 11g RAC components
        1. Voting Disk
        2. Oracle Cluster Registry
        3. Oracle 11g R1 RAC background processes
          1. ACMS Atomic Controlfile to Memory Service
          2. GTX0-j Global Transaction Process
          3. LMON Global Enqueue Service Monitor
          4. LMD Global Enqueue Service Daemon
          5. LMS Global Cache Service Process
          6. LCK0 Instance Enqueue Process
          7. RMSn Oracle RAC Management Processes
          8. RSMN Remote Slave Monitor
        4. Oracle 11g R2 RAC background processes
          1. Grid Plug and Play
          2. Grid Interprocess Communication
          3. Multicast Domain Name Service
          4. Oracle Grid Naming Service
        5. How RAC differs from Oracle 11g single-instance implementations
      7. New ASM features and RAC
        1. New SYSASM privilege for Oracle 11g R1 ASM
        2. Oracle 11g R2 ASM features
          1. OCR and Voting Disk stored in ASM
          2. Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster Filesystem (Oracle ACFS)
      8. New Oracle 11g ASM Disk Group compatibility features
      9. Summary
    9. 3. Clusterware Installation
      1. Preparing for a cluster installation
        1. Server (node) requirements
          1. Network requirements
          2. Kernel parameters
          3. Operating system packages
          4. OS groups and users
          5. OS user settings
          6. Configuring Secure Shell (SSH)
          7. Verifying prerequisites with the CLUVFY utility
      2. Oracle 11g R1 Clusterware installation
        1. Initiating Oracle Universal Installer for Oracle 11g R1 Clusterware
          1. What happens when and is run?
          2. Oracle 11g R1 Clusterware post-installation checks
        2. Installing Oracle 11g R1 RAC software
        3. Initiating Oracle Universal Installer for Oracle 11g R1 RAC software
        4. Post-installation tasks
      3. Oracle 11g R2 Clusterware installation
        1. Initiating Oracle Universal Installer for 11g R2 Clusterware
          1. What happens when the is run?
          2. Oracle 11g R2 Clusterware post-installation checks
        2. Installing Oracle 11g R2 RAC software
        3. Initiating Oracle Universal Installer for Oracle 11g R2 RAC software
        4. Post-installation tasks
        5. Oracle 11g R2 Clusterware new features highlights
      4. Removing/Reconfiguring a Grid Infrastructure configuration
        1. Removing a successful Grid Infrastructure configuration
        2. Reconfiguring a failed Grid Infrastructure configuration
      5. Summary
    10. 4. Automatic Storage Management
      1. Overview of Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
        1. Filesystem versus ASM storage architecture
        2. ASM disk
        3. ASM disk group
      2. ASM instance configuration and management
        1. ASM initialization parameters
        2. Creating an ASM instance
          1. Initializing DBCA
        3. ASM background processes
        4. ASM dynamic views
          1. V$ASM_DISK
          2. V$ASM_DISKGROUP
          3. V$ASM_OPERATION
          4. V$ASM_DISK_STAT
          6. V$ASM_CLIENT
        5. ASM instance startup/shutdown
        6. ASM disk group administration
          1. Creating a disk group
          2. Altering a disk group
          3. Dropping a disk group
      3. Overview of ASMCMD
        1. ASMCMD in action
      4. ASM 11g R1 new features
        1. ASM fast mirror resync
        2. ASM preferred mirror read
        3. ASM fast rebalance
        4. ASM disk group compatibility attributes
        5. ASM performance enhancements
        6. New SYSASM role
      5. ASM 11g R2 new features
        1. Automatic Storage Management Configuration Assistant (ASMCA)
          1. Initiating ASMCA
          2. Configuring a new ASM instance
          3. Managing an ASM instance
          4. Managing an ASM disk group
          5. Creating an ASM disk group
          6. Creating an ASM disk group in silent mode
        2. Automatic Storage Management Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM)
          1. ADVM volume trivia
          2. Creating ASM volumes
            1. Creating an ASM volume with ASMCA
            2. Creating an ASM Volume with ASMCMD
            3. Creating an ASM volume with the ALTER DISKGROUP SQL statement
            4. Querying V$ASM views to obtain information about ASM volumes
        3. Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (ACFS)
          1. Using ACFS as Oracle database home
          2. Oracle ACFS drivers
          3. Prerequisites for creating ACFS
          4. ACFS creation methods
            1. Creating an ACFS filesystem using ASMCA
            2. Creating ACFS for Oracle Binaries with ASMCA
            3. Creating an ACFS filesystem with ASMCMD
        4. ACFS mount registry
          1. Managing ACFS
            1. Acfsutil utility
          2. ASM new background processes to support ACFS
            1. Volume Driver Background (VDBG)
            2. Volume Background process (VBGn)
            3. ACFS Background process (ACFS)
            4. Volume Membership Background processes (VMB0)
          3. Querying V$ASM views to obtain information about ACFS
        5. ACFS snapshots
          1. Creating a snapshot
          2. Removing a snapshot
        6. ASM Intelligent Data Placement (IDP)
          1. Managing IDP settings
          2. Finding IDP setting information
        7. ASMCMD enhancements
      6. ASM backup strategies
        1. md_backup and md_restore commands
      7. Summary
    11. 5. Managing and Troubleshooting Oracle 11g Clusterware
      1. Oracle 11g RAC Clusterware administration
        1. About Oracle Clusterware
        2. Oracle 11g Clusterware concepts
          1. Oracle Cluster Registry
          2. Voting disk
          3. Initialization and shutdown scripts for Clusterware
          4. Oracle 11g Clusterware background processes
          5. Cluster Ready Services Daemon
            1. Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon
            2. Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon
            3. Event Monitor Daemon
          6. Additional background processes for Oracle 11g Clusterware
            1. Oracle Clusterware Process Monitor Daemon OPROCD
            2. OCLSVMON
            3. OCLSOMON
            4. DISKMON
            5. OCLSKD
            6. RACG
        3. Fatal Clusterware processes and Oracle 11g RAC
      2. Managing Oracle 11g Clusterware utilities
        1. CRSCTL
        2. CRS_STAT
        3. OCRCHECK
        4. OCRCONFIG
        5. CLSCFG
        6. CLUVFY
      3. Troubleshooting Oracle 11g Clusterware
        1. Failed, missing, or offline 11g Clusterware resources
          1. Offline Clusterware resources for Oracle 11g RAC
        2. Problems with the Voting disk and OCR
          1. Vote disk issues with 11g Clusterware resources
          2. Failed or corrupted Vote Disks
        3. Failed or corrupted OCR
          1. How to recover the OCR from backup
          2. Steps to perform recovery of lost and/or corrupted OCR
          3. Check status 11g RAC Clusterware
          4. Root cause analysis 11g RAC
            1. Oracle 11g Clusterware log file analysis
        4. Oracle 11g RAC node reboot issues
          1. Oracle 11g RAC Clusterware processes—node reboot issues
            1. Oracle Process Daemon
            2. OCLSOMON
          2. Root cause analysis for solving node reboots with 11g RAC
            1. Oracle 11g RAC log files for troubleshooting
          3. OCSSD Reboots and 11g RAC
          4. OPROCD failure and node reboots
          5. OCLSOMON-RAC node reboot
        5. Hardware, storage, and network problems with RAC
          1. Hardware, storage, and network resolutions
      4. New features in Oracle 11g R2 Clusterware
          1. Oracle Real Application Clusters one node (Oracle RAC one node)
          2. Improved Oracle Clusterware resource modeling
          3. Policy-based cluster and capacity management
          4. Cluster time synchronization service
          5. Oracle Cluster Registry and voting disks within Oracle ASM
          6. New features for upgrading to Oracle 11g Clusterware
          7. Oracle 11g R2 Cluster Verification Utility new features
          8. Zero downtime patching for Oracle Clusterware
      5. Summary
    12. 6. RAC Database Administration and Workload Management
      1. RAC database configuration and creation
        1. Creating a database using DBCA
          1. Choosing database storage options
          2. We have created a database using DBCA—now what?
      2. What's new in Oracle 11g R1 and R2 databases?
        1. Automatic Memory Management
          1. New AMM dynamic performance V$ views
          2. Tuning AMM
            1. Special considerations on Linux
            2. /dev/shm sizing issues
        2. Database Smart Flash Cache
          1. Configuring Smart Flash Cache
        3. Instance caging
        4. New background processes in Oracle 11g
          1. Finding the alert.log file location in Oracle 11g
          2. Automatic Diagnostic Repository
            1. Managing ADR using the Automatic Diagnostic Repository Command Interface tool
          3. V$DIAG_INFO view
      3. RAC database administration
        1. Using the Server Control Utility
      4. Automatic Workload Management
        1. Overview of services
          1. Creating and managing services
            1. Creating services with the SRVCTL utility
              1. SRVCTL ADD SERVICE syntax and options
              2. Configuring a TNS entry with a service
            2. DBMS_SERVICE PL/SQL package
              1. Database internal default services
              2. Service performance views
            3. Services' characteristics
      5. What's new in Oracle 11g services' behavior?
        1. Scalability (Load Balancing)
          1. Client Side Connect Time Load Balance
            1. Configuring Client Side Connect Time Load Balancing
          2. Server Side Listener Connection Load Balance
            1. Configuring Server Side Listener Connection Load Balancing
        2. Transparent Application Failover
          1. Configuring Transparent Application Failover
            1. FAILOVER_MODE parameters
        3. Fast Connection Failover
          1. Configuring Fast Connection Failover
            1. Configuring Fast Connection Failover in the client environment
      6. Summary
    13. 7. Backup and Recovery
      1. An overview of backup and recovery
      2. An overview of Recovery Manager (RMAN)
        1. RMAN architecture
        2. RMAN performance tuning tips
      3. Backup types and methods
        1. Logical backup
        2. Physical backup
          1. ONLINE RMAN backups
          2. OFFLINE RMAN backups
      4. RMAN new features in 11g R1 and 11g R2
        1. Database Recovery Advisor
        2. Multisection backups for very large datafiles
        3. Undo tablespace backup optimization
        4. Faster backup compression
        5. Active database duplication
          1. Active database duplication enhancements
          2. Archivelog deletion policy enhancements
        6. Automatic Block Recovery (ABR)
        7. Tablespace point-in-time recovery enhancements
      5. RMAN best practices for RAC
        1. Configuring the Flash Recovery Area for a RAC database
        2. Instance recovery versus Crash recovery in RAC
        3. Parallelism for backup and recovery in RAC
        4. Backing up a RAC database with RMAN
        5. Configuring multiple channels
      6. OCR and Voting disk backup and recovery strategies
        1. Adding a Mirror location for the OCR and Voting disk
        2. OCR automatic backups
        3. Performing OCR manual backups
        4. Voting disk manual backups
        5. Restoring OCR
        6. Restoring the Voting disk
      7. Summary
    14. 8. Performance Tuning
      1. Tuning differences: single instance versus RAC
        1. Oracle 11g single instance database
        2. Oracle RAC 11g database
      2. New Oracle 11g performance tuning features
        1. Database Replay
        2. SQL Performance Analyzer
        3. Database Health Monitor
        4. PL/SQL Native Compilation
        5. Server Result Cache
        6. Client Side Result Cache
        7. SQL Tuning Advisor
      3. New performance features in Oracle 11gR2
        1. In-Memory Parallel Execution
      4. Analyzing the Cache Fusion impact on RAC performance
        1. Cache Fusion
        2. Latency statistics
        3. RAC wait events
      5. Monitoring RAC cluster interconnect performance
      6. Oracle cluster interconnects
      7. Monitoring RAC wait events
      8. Summary
    15. 9. Oracle 11g Clusterware Upgrade
      1. Overview of an upgrade
        1. Upgrade sequence
      2. Upgrading Oracle 10g R2 Clusterware to Oracle 11g R1
        1. Kernel parameter values
        2. Packages required on Linux 5
        3. Oracle 11g R1 Clusterware upgrade steps
          1. Performing preinstallation checks with cluvfy
          2. Executing script
          3. Post-upgrade steps for 11g R1 Clusterware
      3. Upgrading to Oracle 11g R2 Clusterware
        1. Overview of our environment
          1. Upgrading nodes
          2. 11g R2 upgrade changes and restrictions
          3. Kernel parameter values
          4. Packages required on Linux 5
          5. Performing preinstallation checks with cluvfy
        2. Oracle 11g R2 Clusterware upgrade steps
          1. Executing the script
          2. Post-upgrade checks for 11g R2 Clusterware
          3. Post-upgrade steps for 11g R2 Clusterware
      4. Downgrading Oracle Clusterware after an upgrade
      5. Summary
    16. 10. Real-world Scenarios
      1. Adding a new node to an existing cluster
        1. Performing prechecks with the cluvfy utility
        2. Adding a node in silent mode in Oracle 11g R2
        3. Post-installation status checks for Clusterware
          1. OCR file manual backup syntax
          2. Voting Disk backup syntax
        4. Installing ASM and RDBMS software using script
          1. Cloning ASM software using script on Oracle 11g R1
          2. Post-node addition steps
      2. Removing a node from the cluster
      3. Adding an RAC database instance
        1. Adding a new instance using DBCA
          1. We have added an instance—what next?
          2. Verifying new instance status
          3. Using DBCA in silent mode to add an instance
          4. Post-add instance steps
      4. Deleting an RAC database instance
        1. Using DBCA in silent mode to delete an instance
      5. Converting a single-instance database to an RAC database
        1. Overview of RCONFIG command-line tool
          1. What you need to accomplish the conversion task
          2. Sample of a modified ConvertToRAC.xml input file
        2. How to test a conversion without actually performing the conversion
      6. Converting a single-instance database to an RAC database
          1. How to resume a failed rconfig operation
          2. Checking log files
        1. How to optimize rconfig to run faster
        2. Post-conversion steps
      7. Relocating an RAC database and instances across nodes
        1. Relocating the instance
          1. Adding the instance example
        2. Workaround when a database and instance are configured on the same node
          1. Adding the database example
        3. Post-relocation steps
      8. Summary
    17. 11. Enabling RAC for EBS
      1. EBS architecture
      2. Oracle 11g RAC suitability
      3. Installing EBS 12.1.1
      4. EBS implementation on Oracle 11g RAC
      5. RAC-enabling EBS 12.1.1
        1. Configuration prerequisites
        2. ASM and RAC-enabling the EBS database with the rconfig utility
        3. Running AutoConfig
        4. Copying AutoConfig to the new RDBMS ORACLE_HOME for Oracle 11g R1
        5. Generating your database context file
        6. Preparing for AutoConfig by completing the following AutoConfig steps
        7. Generating and applying AutoConfig configuration files
        8. Executing AutoConfig on all database nodes in the cluster
        9. Performing Init file, tnsnames, and listener file activities
        10. Establishing applications environment for Oracle RAC
        11. Setting up load balancing
        12. Configuring Parallel Concurrent Processing
          1. Prerequisites for setting up Parallel Concurrent Processing
        13. Cloning EBS concepts in brief
          1. Preparing the source system
          2. Copying the source system
          3. Configuring the target system
            1. Adding a new node to an existing EBS system
            2. Setting up Parallel Concurrent Processing
            3. Setting up Transaction Managers
            4. Setting up load balancing on concurrent processing nodes
          4. Summary
    18. 12. Maximum Availability
      1. Oracle 11g Streams for RAC
        1. Oracle 11g Streams architecture for RAC
          1. Capture
          2. Staging
          3. Propagation
          4. Consumption
          5. Default apply
          6. User-defined function apply
          7. Explicit de-queue
          8. Understanding Oracle Streams rules
          9. Transformations and Streams
          10. Capture and Apply processes in an RAC instance
          11. Streams in the RAC environment
        2. New features in Oracle 11g Streams
          1. Synchronous Capture
          2. Splitting and merging of a Stream Destination
          3. Tracking LCRs through a Stream
          4. Streams Topology and Performance Advisor
          5. Combined Capture and Apply
      2. Best practices for Streams in an RAC environment
        1. Additional configuration of RAC environments for a Source Database
          1. Queue ownership
          2. Propagation restart
          3. Changing the GLOBAL_NAME of the source database
        2. Additional configuration for RAC environments for the Apply Database
          1. Changing the GLOBAL_NAME of the Target Database
      3. New features for Streams in Oracle 11g R2
        1. XStream
        2. Statement DML Handlers
        3. Ability to record table changes
        4. SQL generation
        5. Support for compressed tables
        6. Support for SecureFile LOBs
        7. Automatic splitting and merging
        8. New Apply process parameter
        9. Monitoring jobs
        10. New 11g R2 Oracle Streams view
      4. Oracle 11g Data Guard and RAC
        1. New features for Oracle 11g Data Guard
          1. Active Data Guard
          2. Snapshot Standby
        2. Configuring Data Guard Physical Standby for 11g RAC
          1. Configuring Oracle RAC primary database to send redo data
        3. Design considerations in an Oracle RAC environment
          1. Format for archived redo log filenames
            1. Switchover considerations for 11g RAC and Data Guard
        4. Troubleshooting Oracle 11g Data Guard and RAC
          1. Switchover fails in an Oracle 11g RAC configuration
          2. How to recover from corrupt datafile on standby
          3. How to recover from a corrupt block on standby
          4. Automatic repairing of corrupt data blocks
      5. New features for Data Guard in Oracle 11g R2
        1. New Oracle Data Guard 11g R2 features for Redo Apply
        2. New Oracle 11g R2 Data Guard features for SQL Apply
      6. Summary
    19. A. Additional Resources and Tools for the Oracle RAC Professional
      1. Sample configurations
        1. Reviewing and resolving manual configuration changes
          1. adchkcfg utility
      2. Oracle RAC commands and tips
        1. Cluster deconfig tool for Oracle RAC
          1. Using the cluster deconfig tool
          2. Limitations of the cluster deconfig tool
          3. Problems and limitations of the cluster deconfig tool
          4. Starting the cluster deconfig tool
          5. Silent mode operations using cluster deconfig
        2. Manual cleanup for RAC
          1. Repairing the RAC environment without reinstalling
        3. Reinitializing OCR and Voting Disks without reinstalling RAC
        4. Using ROOTDELETE.SH in debug mode
        5. Using
        6. Reinstalling CRS on the same cluster in another CRS_HOME
          1. Stopping CRS processes
        7. Reinstalling CRS on same cluster in another CRS_HOME
        8. Oracle 11g R2 cluster removal tools for RAC
        9. Tracing RAC issues with Oradebug
          1. Using Oradebug to trace Oracle 11g Clusterware
        10. Server Control Utility
          1. Oracle 11g R2 SRVCTL commands
        11. Managing Oracle Clusterware with the CRSCTL utility
          1. Differences between 11g R1 and 11g R2 syntax for CRSCTL
            1. CRS_STAT
            2. The kernel file OSM discovery tool
      3. Operating system-level commands for tuning and diagnosis
        1. Strace
        2. Truss
        3. GDB
      4. Additional references and tips
      5. Clusterware startup sequence for Oracle 11g R2

Product information

  • Title: Oracle 11g R1/R2 Real Application Clusters Essentials
  • Author(s):
  • Release date: May 2011
  • Publisher(s): Packt Publishing
  • ISBN: 9781849682664