As an architect of a large, mission-critical website or enterprise application, you need to address at least three major non-functional requirements: performance, scalability, and availability.

Performance is defined as the amount of time that an operation takes to complete. In a web application, it is usually measured as "time to last byte" (TTLB)—the amount of time elapsed from the moment the web server received a request, until the moment the last byte of response has been sent back to the client. Performance is extremely important, because experience has shown us that no matter how great and full-featured an application is, if it is slow and unresponsive, the users will hate it.

Scalability is the ability of the system to maintain ...

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