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PCB Currents: How They Flow, How They React by Douglas Brooks

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1. Electrons and Charges

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1.1. The Flow of Electrons

Current is the flow of electrons. This is the most important definition in this book! If there is a current, electrons are moving, and if there is no current, electrons are not moving. It’s that simple. It is no accident that the world of voltages and currents is called electronics.

When we measure current, we are determining how many electrons are moving. The definition of 1 amp of current is 1 coulomb of charge (6.25 × 1018 electrons) passing by a point (or across a surface) in 1 second. So one way to measure current is to actually count the number of electrons passing by a point in one unit ...

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