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PEM Fuel Cells by Ken S. Chen, Yun Wang

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2.3 VOLTAGE LOSS MECHANISMS AND A SIMPLIFIED MODEL

One of the most important concerns in PEM fuel cells is their output voltage loss. Output voltage, along with output current, directly determines PEM fuel cell’s power output. Because there exists a theoretical maximum voltage that a fuel cell can achieve from the hydrogen fuel, voltage loss is a key factor determining the output voltage and efficiency (the ratio of the output voltage to the ­theoretical one). In this section, we highlight the major voltage loss mechanisms and further introduce a simple model to predict the voltage loss, along with the parameters affecting voltage losses. An introduction to voltage loss mechanisms is also well explained in Ref. [3].

2.3.1 Open Circuit Voltage ...

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