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PEM Fuel Cells by Ken S. Chen, Yun Wang

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5.3 SPECIES CONVECTION

5.3.1 Flow Modeling with Constant-Flow Assumption

In order to account for convection, flow fields must be known first. Flows encountered in PEM fuel cells are usually in the laminar regime due to the relatively low magnitude of velocity and small physical dimension. In general, Newtonian fluid flows in the laminar regime are well described by the Navier–Stokes equations. In porous components such as GDLs and catalyst layers, Darcy’s law is frequently adopted to relate momentum flux to pressure gradient. In PEM fuel cell studies reported in the open literature so far, flow fields were poorly described in many cases and the coupling with electrochemical reactions were neglected to some degree; for example, the mass exchanges ...

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