7.3 VOLTAGE LOSS DUE TO ICE FORMATION
7.3.1 Spatial Variation of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR)
Though catalyst layers are thin (around 10 μm), the reaction rate changes spatially across the layer. A dimensionless parameter can be defined as follows to quantify the degree of the non-uniformity :
where j is the transfer current density, and j0 and jδ represent the transfer current densities at the two surfaces of the catalyst layer, respectively; is the through-plane dimensionless distance, and δ is the layer’s thickness. ...