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PEM Fuel Cells by Ken S. Chen, Yun Wang

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9.2 VAPOR–LIQUID PHASE CHANGE: EVAPORATION AND CONDENSATION

Condensed water is deposited on solid or liquid surfaces whereas evaporation occurs at gas–liquid interfaces and dissimilation at gas–ice interfaces. Condensation refers to the change of the physical state of matter from its vapor phase to liquid one, and evaporation is the reverse of condensation. In the microscopic view, when temperature becomes low, molecular movement slows down and ­intermolecular attraction prevails, bringing molecules closer to a distance comparable to their size. The latent heat is released, as a result of the potential energy change at the molecular level.

Using condensation in GDLs as an example, from the kinetic theory, the condensation rate (per unit interfacial ...

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