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© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Chapter 9
Diversity in the
Workforce
As noted in Chapter 8 of this book, diversity is the next stage in the evolutionary
process of equal employment opportunity (EEO) and armative action. It differs
from EEO and armative action in marked ways (see Table 9.1). Here, we begin by
describing the changes in the workforce necessitating attention to the management
of diversity and the subtle ways in which equal opportunity is sometimes limited in
organizations. e chapter then discusses some strategies undertaken by organiza-
tions to provide a more inclusive environment for all segments of the workforce.
Workforce 2020
In 1987, under a contract with the Department of Labor, the Hudson Institute
issued a report entitled Workforce 2000, which forecasted the key trends that would
shape the nature of the American workplace and workforce at the end of the twenti-
eth century. A year later, under contract with the Office of Personnel Management
(OPM), the Hudson Institute produced a similar report, Civil Service 2000, that
described anticipated changes in the federal civil service over the same time period.
ese reports served as a wake-up call to employers by documenting the increasing
diversity of the American workforce. e Institute warned that policies that had
been effective when the workforce was largely young, white, and male might no
longer be effective as women and people of color become a larger share of the labor
force and as the average age of employees rises. Workforce 2000 was later criticized
because it appeared to overstate the extent to which white men would shrink as a
percentage of the labor force. Nevertheless, the reports induced a flurry of activity
384 ◾  Personnel Management in Government, Seventh Edition
© 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
and the development of an industry of consultants, books, and videos designed to
sensitize employers and employees to the different perspectives and needs of a more
diverse workforce.
A decade later, the Hudson Institute published a sequel to Workforce 2000,
entitled Workforce 2020. eir latest study predicts an incremental but continued
diversification of the workforce. e percentage of women in the workforce already
Table 9.1 Comparing Equal Employment Opportunity, Affirmative Action,
and Managing Diversity
EEO Affirmative Action Managing Diversity
Qualitative/quantitative:
Emphasis on preventing
or ending
discrimination
Qualitative/quantitative:
Emphasis on redressing
past discrimination and
achieving diverse,
representative
workforces
Behavioral: Emphasis on
building specific skills
and creating a productive
work environment with
the organization’s human
resources
Legally driven:
Mandated by federal
law
Managerially and legally
driven: Involves voluntarily
developed goals as well
as court-ordered
programs; common law
has defined its legality and
constitutionality
Strategically driven:
Behaviors and policies
seen as contributing to
organizational goals and
objectives such as
productivity
Fairness: Seeks to end
discrimination and
create equal
opportunities
Remedial and
compensatory: Specific
target groups benefit
aspast and present
wrongs are remedied
Pragmatic: Organization
benefits in terms of
morale and increases in
productivity
Access model: Assumes
that protected class
persons will be able to
access organizations
Assimilation model:
Assumes that persons
and groups brought into
the system will adapt to
existing organizational
norms; can result in “sink
or swim” atmosphere/
environment
Synergy model: Seeks to
change organizational
culture to accommodate
diverse groups; assumes
people will develop new
ways of working
together in a pluralistic
environment
Level playing field:
Seeks to ensure equal
opportunity and access
Opens doors: Seeks to
affect hiring and
promotion decisions in
organizations
Opens the system:
Seeks to affect
managerial practices
and policies
Source: Riccucci, Norma M. Managing Diversity in Public Sector Workforces.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2002.

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